Designation (from grch. Taxis = order, nomos = law) for the division into a hierarchical system. In biology, living beings such as animals, plants and viruses are hierarchically divided and divided into groups (taxa) according to their natural relationship. The first attempts were made in the antiquity, for example by the Greek naturalist Theophrastus (370-287 BC).
The Swedish botanist Carl von Linné (1707-1778) developed the basics of modern taxonomy and introduced the concept of "species" into biological systems. In 1735 he published the work "Fundamenta Botanica", in which he presented his ideas for transforming the basics of botany in detail for the first time. Its official botanical abbreviation is "L." However, Linne's classification system did not yet include all the categories or levels that are common today. However, these are not always used for all plants or animals. The particular use simply depends on how complex the respective units are. The three main categories almost always mentioned in technical sources are family-genus-type . Each category can still be broken down into "sub-levels" (subspecies). Likewise, as the last sub-level of a main category, an "over-level" can be created, which is then above the next main category (superdiviso).
The term species is a basic category of biological taxonomy. However, the species is usually specified together with the genus mentioned first - for example in humans as "Homo = human (genus) sapiens = gifted for reason (species)". However, a general definition of the term has not yet been achieved. In biology there are at least three species concepts that lead to overlapping but not identical classifications. In the concepts used today, the term type mostly refers to a group of living beings that have so many distinctive features morphological (Shape and form or their changes in the course of development history) or physiological Features have in common that they are considered to be distinguishable from any other group of living beings.
According to another view, those organisms and their direct descendants belong to a species that can (naturally) reproduce with one another while producing fertile offspring. A third view limits the concept of species to organisms that have one ecological Share niche within an ecosystem. Reproductions or intersections between two different species / types are not possible in principle for genetic reasons, but in most cases they are vines such as the two species Vitis vinifera and Vitis labrusca, These so called interspecific crossing results are then generally used as hybrids referred to, although strictly speaking, crosses within a species (intraspecific) also represent hybrids.
As a rule, a cross between species of two different genera is not possible, but there are also genus hybrids in nature. This means that when assigning animals or plants to the respective levels, the possibility of reproduction has not always been taken into account. In practice, there are several systems that differ in detail, especially in zoology and botany. See that for plants or grapevine most commonly used taxonomy system under Vines systematics,