Designation (of Greek taxis = order, nomos = law) for the division into a hierarchical system. In biology living beings such as animals, plants and viruses are hierarchically divided into groups (taxa) according to their natural relationship. First attempts were already in the antiquity For example, by the Greek naturalist Theophrastus (370-287 BC).
The Swedish botanist Carl von Linné (1707-1778) developed the foundations of modern taxonomy and introduced the notion of "species" into biological systematics. In 1735 he published the work "Fundamenta Botanica", in which for the first time he set out in detail his ideas for the transformation of the foundations of botany. His official botanical author abbreviation is "L.". However, Linnae's classification system did not yet include all the usual categories or levels today. These are not always used in all plants or animals. The usage depends on how complex each unit is. The three main categories almost always mentioned in professional sources are family genus species . Each category can still be broken down into "lower levels" (subspecies). Likewise, as the last lower level of a main category, an "upper level" can be created, which then stands above the next main category (superdiviso).
The term species or species is a basic category of biological taxonomy. The species is usually indicated together with the genus first mentioned - for example, in humans as "homo = human (genus) sapiens = intelligent (species)". However, a general definition of term has not yet been achieved. In biology, there are at least three species concepts that lead to overlapping but not identical classifications. In today's conventional concepts, the term "species" usually refers to a group of living things that have so many unmistakable morphological (Shape and form or their changes in the course of development history) or physiological Have characteristics in common with each other group of living beings.
In another view, those organisms and their direct descendants belong to a species that can reproduce naturally with the production of fertile offspring. A third conception limits the species concept to organisms that become one ecological Sharing niche within an ecosystem. Reproductions or intersections between two different species / species are not possible in principle for genetic reasons, but in most cases in the vines like the two species Vitis vinifera and Vitis labrusca, These so-called Interspecific crossroads results are then commonly used as hybrids although, strictly speaking, intersections within a species (intraspecific) are also hybrids.
As a rule, a cross between species of two different genera is not possible, but there are also species hybrids in nature. This means that in the case of the assignment of animals or plants to the respective stages, one has not always considered the possibility of reproduction in every case. In practice, there are several systems that differ in detail, especially in zoology and botany. See that in plants or grapevine most commonly used taxonomy system under Vines systematics,