Term for dark varieties or so-called dye grapes. This grapes have a red pulp, compared to usually light or gray like most red wine grapes. That means the anthocyanins are present not only in the berry shells, but also in the interior of the berries and thus in the grape juice in large quantities. Since the color pigments are present in the entire plant tissue, they also color leaves relatively early red. For the most part, top wines are obtained from the dyed grapes, of which an independent sorting of wines takes place only to a limited extent. Such grapes became popular in France, especially from the mid-19th century, for pale, low-pigment red wines colour to rent. Usually less than five percent of the cover wine in one is sufficient Cuvée to meet this requirement. Such a small amount is sufficient for the color change, but on the other hand it is small enough not to cause any undesired taste impairment.
The origin of many dyed grapes dates back to 1824 when Louis Bouschet the sorts Aramon Noir and Teinturier du Cher crossed and the result Petit Bouschet called. The father variety Complexion of Cher is considered the original vine of all color grapes. Bouschet's son Henry created in 1866 by crossing Petit Bouschet x Garnacha Tinta the Alicante Henri Bouschet, which developed into the most successful complexion vine and later also others like Alicante Ganzin and Grand Noir de la Calmette, Other French color grapes are dark flesh varieties of Gamay how Gamay complexion de Chaudenay. Gamay complexion de Bouze, Gamay complexion Desbaillet Garnier and Gamay complexion Fréaux, and also Cinsault. Colobel and Salvador Noire, Californian complexion varieties are Royalty and Olmo grapes, Be in Italy abrusco and Ancellotta prefers. The main dye grape in Russia is Saperavi, In Germany the varieties Accent. Carmina. Deckrot. Domina. dark fields. kolor. Palas. rondo and Sulmer, above all in Austria Blauburger used.
Images: Ursula Brühl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)