The red grape variety comes from Spain. Over 80 Synonyms testify the old age and the wide spread. The main alphabetically grouped by country are Negretto, Santo Stefano ( Italy ); Valdepeñas ( California ); Aragón, Aragones, Aragonez, Aragonez da Ferra, Aragonez de Elvas, Arinto Tinto, Roriz, Tinta Aragonez, Tinta Roriz, Tinta Santiago ( Portugal ); Albillo Negro, Aldepenas, Arauxa, Arganda, Botón de Gallo, Castellana, Cencibel, Chinchillana, Chinchilyano, Escobera, Grenache de Logrono, Jacibiera, Jacivera, Negra de Mesa, Piñuela, Sensibel, Tempranilla, Tempranillo de la Rioja, Tempranillo de Perralillo Tempranillo de Rioja, Tempranillo de Rioza, Tempranillo Rioja, Tempranillo Tinta, Tempranillo Tinto, Tinta de Nava, Tinta del País, Tinta del Toro, Tinta do Inacio, Tinta do País, Tinta Fina, Tinta Madrid, Tinto Aragónez, Tinto de Madrid, Tinto del País, Tinto Fino, Tinto Madrid, Tinto País, Tinto Ribiera, Ull de Llebre, Verdiell, Vid de Aranda ( Spain ); Jacibiera, Jacivera, Garnacho Foño ( South America ).
Despite apparently suggesting synonyms or morphological No similarities with the varieties Garnacha Tinta. Juan Garcia (Malvasía Negra), Malvasia Nera di Basilicata. Malvasia Nera di Brindisi. Moristel (Tempranillo Temprano) or Negretto be confused. In Italy, the Tempranillo variety misleadingly uses the synonyms Malvasia Nera (also a synonym for Malvasia Nera di Basilicata) and Malvasia Nera di Lecce (also a synonym for Malvasia Nera di Brindisi).
The earliest mention of the variety may have been made under the plural "las tempraniellas" in the area Ribera del Duero in the 13th century, however, the identity is not certain, as other varieties were named that way. Under the old synonym Aragonés, it may have been in the agronomist's catalog of varieties in 1513 Gabriel Alonso de Herrera (1470-1539). However, the mention made in 1807 by the biologist and ampelographer is considered to be reliable Simon de Rojas Clemente y Rubio (1777-1827), whereby Maiolus was given as a synonym (see next paragraph). This took an origin in the fields Rioja or Navarra in northern Spain. This is also in line with the many that occur there Clone,
From medieval authors Petrus de Crescentiis (1230-1320) a variety called Maiolus was mentioned. This later led to the presumption of a relationship or identical identity between the Lombard variety Maiolina and Tempranillo. Another hypothesis is to link between one of Burgundian Cistercian monks taken on their pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela (Galicia) Pinot vine and Tempranillo exist. Both hypotheses have turned out to be obsolete. Because according to 2012 done by Javier Ibáñez DNA analysis it is a natural crossing between the two Spanish varieties Albillo Mayor x Benedicto, The variety was a cross partner in new breeding Temparia, From a probably natural cross with Marufo is the variety Coloraillo emerged. It wasn't until 1988 that the white mutation in the Rioja Baja area Tempranillo Blanco discovered.
The name means "the early" (span. Temprano = early) and refers to the early maturity. On the Iberian Peninsula, it is traditionally also raised in bush form low above the ground. The productive vine has particularly thick-skinned berries, is sensitive to wind and drought, susceptible to real ones mildew and eutypa dieback but resistant to Botrytis, It produces colorful, intensely fruity red wines with moderate acid and alcohol content and soft tannins, which have diverse flavors of spices, leather, tobacco and have strawberries. With low yields and Barrique is characterized by a great aging potential. Tempranillo has a similar importance in Spain as Cabernet Sauvignon in France and brings as a blend in many red wines structure on. It belongs to the extended circle of the Cépages nobles,
In Spain is Tempranillo after the white one Airén the second most common grape variety and occupied a total of 207,677 hectares in 2010 (ten years earlier there were 79,310). Among its numerous synonyms, it is strongly represented in almost all regions, with the exception of Asturias and Galicia in the northwest, as well Andalusia in the very south. It is very often used with the Garnacha Tinta, and also mazuelo and Macabeo blended, In Rioja Alta and Rioja Alavesa it occupies over 70% of the area under vines and is the most important Rioja Vine, It is the main component of the red wines "Pesquera" from the winery Alejandro Fernández, "Pingus" from the winery Dominio de Pingus and "Unico" from the winery Vega Sicilia that are among the best and most expensive Spain count.
In Portugal it has been grown under the names Aragonez and Tinta Roriz for centuries. It is mainly in the areas there Alentejo. dão. Douro (in the port wine authorized), Lisboa and Tejo represented. The area under cultivation of the most common Portuguese variety, which is also expanding here, totaled 16,706 hectares in 2010 with a rapidly increasing trend (ten years earlier it was 7,356 hectares). There is more acreage in Europe in France (680 ha), Greece (19 ha), Italy (23 ha) and in the Turkey (9 ha).
Already in the 17th century the variety was conquered by the Conquistadores in South America introduced. There are stocks in Argentina mainly in the area Mendoza (6,120 ha), Brazil (16 ha), Chile (48 ha) and Mexico (229 ha). Other countries are Australia (476 ha), Canada (6 ha), Myanmar (3 ha), New Zealand (7 ha), South Africa (38 ha) and Thailand (4 ha). The variety occupied a total of 232,561 hectares of vineyards in 2010. Compared to 2000 with 92,985 hectares at the time, this means two and a half times the amount. With that she was (with Syrah ) the most expanding variety. It thus demonstrated in the worldwide varieties ranking rank 4.
Source: Wine Grapes / J. Robinson, J. Harding, J. Vouillamoz / Penguin Books Ltd. 2012
Images: Ursula Brühl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)