The red grape variety comes from Spain. Over 80 Synonyms testify to the old age and the wide distribution. The most important alphabetically grouped by country are Negretto, Santo Stefano ( Italy ); Valdepeñas ( California ); Aragón, Aragones, Aragonez, Aragonez da Ferra, Aragonez de Elvas, Arinto Tinto, Roriz, Tinta Aragonez, Tinta Roriz, Tinta Santiago ( Portugal ); Albillo Negro, Aldepenas, Arauxa, Arganda, Botón de Gallo, Cencibel, Chinchillana, Chinchilyano, Escobera, Grenache de Logrono, Jacibiera, Jacivera, Negra de Mesa, Piñuela, Sensible, Tempranilla, Tempranillo de la Rioja, Tempranillo de Perralta, Tempranillo de Rioja, Tempranillo de Rioza, Tempranillo Rioja, Tempranillo Tinta, Tempranillo Tinto, Tinta de Nava, Tinta del País, Tinta del Toro, Tinta do Inacio, Tinta do País, Tinta Madrid, Tinto Aragónez, Tinto de Madrid, Tinto del País, Tinto Fino, Tinto Madrid, Tinto País, Tinto Ribiera, Ull de Llebre, Verdi, Vid de Aranda ( Spain ); Jacibiera, Jacivera, Garnacho Foño ( South America ).
It may, despite seemingly suggestive synonyms or morphological Similarities do not match the varieties Garnacha Tinta. Juan Garcia (Malvasia Negra), Malvasia Nera di Basilicata. Malvasia Nera di Brindisi. Moristel (Tempranillo Temprano) or Negretto be confused. In Italy, for the variety Tempranillo misleadingly the synonyms Malvasia Nera (also a synonym for Malvasia Nera di Basilicata) and Malvasia Nera di Lecce (also a synonym for Malvasia Nera di Brindisi) is used.
The earliest mention of the variety possibly took place under the plural "las tempraniellas" in the area Ribera del Duero In the 13th century, however, the identity is not certain, as other varieties were named so. Under the old synonym Aragonés it was possibly in 1513 listed in the variety catalog of the agronomist Gabriel Alonso de Herrera (1470-1539). However, the first mention made by the biologist and ampelographer in 1807 is considered reliable Simon de Rojas Clemente y Rubio (1777-1827), where as a synonym Maiolus was specified (see next paragraph). This took an origin in the areas Rioja or Navarra in the central north of Spain. This is also consistent with there numerous occurring Clone,
From medieval authors Petrus de Crescentiis (1230-1320) a variety called Maiolus was mentioned. This later led to the presumption of a relationship or identity between the Lombardian variety Maiolina and Tempranillo. According to another hypothesis, a connection between one of Burgundian Cistercian monks on her pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela (Galicia) Pinot vine and Tempranillo exist. Both hypotheses have proven obsolete. Because according to done in 2012 by Javier Ibáñez DNA analysis it is a natural one crossing between the two Spanish varieties Albillo Mayor x Benedicto, The variety was crossing partner in the new breed Temparia, It was only in 1988 that the white mutation in the Rioja Baja area became Tempranillo Blanco discovered.
The name means "the early one" (Spanish temprano = early) and refers to the early maturity. It is traditionally raised in the Iberian Peninsula in bush form low above the ground. The high-yielding vine possesses particularly thick-skinned berries, is sensitive to wind and drought, prone to real mildew and eutypa dieback, but resistant to Botrytis, It produces colorful, intense fruity red wines with moderate acidity and alcohol content and soft tannins, the diverse aromas of spices, leather, tobacco and strawberries. At low yields and Barrique This distinguishes a great aging potential. Tempranillo has a similar importance in Spain as Cabernet Sauvignon in France and brings as a blend in many red wines structure on. It belongs to the extended circle of the Cépages noble,
In Spain Tempranillo is after the white Airén the second most common grape variety and occupied in 2010 a total of 207,677 hectares of vineyards (ten years earlier, there were 79,310). Among its many synonyms, it is well represented in almost all regions except Asturias and Galicia in the northwest, as well Andalusia in the very south. Very often she will be with the Garnacha Tinta, and also mazuelo and Macabeo blended, In Rioja Alta and Rioja Alavesa she occupies more than 70% of the vineyard and is the most important Rioja Vine, It is the main ingredient of the red wines "Pesquera" from the winery Alejandro Fernández, "Pingus" from the winery Dominio de Pingus and "Unico" from the winery Vega Sicilia thats among the best and most expensive Spain count.
In Portugal It has been grown under the names Aragonez and Tinta Roriz for centuries. She is mainly there in the fields Alentejo. dão. Douro (in the port wine authorized), Lisboa and Tejo represented. The acreage of the most common Portuguese cultivar, which is expanding here, totaled 16,706 hectares in 2010, with a strong upward trend (ten years earlier it was 7,356 hectares). There are more cultivated areas in Europe in France (680 ha), Greece (19 ha), Italy (23 ha) and in the Turkey (9 ha).
Already in the 17th century, the variety was in the conquest of Conquistadores in South America introduced. There are stocks here Argentina mainly in the field Mendoza (6,120 ha), Brazil (16 ha), Chile (48 ha) and Mexico (229 ha). Other countries are Australia (476 ha), Canada (6 ha), Myanmar (3 ha), New Zealand (7 ha), South Africa (38 ha) and Thailand (4 ha). The variety occupied in 2010 a total of 232,561 hectares of vineyards. Compared to 2000 with then 92.985 hectares, this means two and a half times the amount. That was her (with Syrah ) the most expanding variety. It thus proved in the worldwide varieties ranking the rank 4.
Source: Wine Grapes / J. Robinson, J. Harding, J. Vouillamoz / Penguin Books Ltd. 2012
Pictures: Ursula Bruehl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)