Term (also called "modesty") for the ritual form of alcohol consumption, whereby the drinker wants to honor by drinking a deceased or living person or a group of people by dedicating the drink. Drinking also means mutual greeting. A short speech is often given, or at least a suitable one toast pronounced. The drinking applies in addition to that in the Old Testament Bible described greeting with bread and wine as one of the oldest drinking customs of mankind. As long as the others were drinking, a man was not allowed to withdraw, even to the point of losing consciousness. This should make a man strong. Failure to refrain from drinking was often perceived as a serious insult. The result could be social, societal and economic exclusion as well as physical attacks. The belief that according to the saying played a certain role "In vino veritas" the true character of a person shows under the influence of alcohol. Due to these circumstances, drinking excesses with violent acts up to homicide were very common.
From the late Middle Ages there was therefore an increase from the church side, but also by the humanists against the “devil alcohol “Preached. Martin Luther (1483-1546) spoke about the "devilish habit of extravagant drinking" . In Austria ( Wien ), clergymen fought excessive verbal and written alcohol consumption Abraham a Sancta Clara (1644-1709) and Johann quickly (1540-1612). Already in 1495 a Baden state regulation prohibited drinking, in the area of Bamberg drinking drinkers and the innkeepers who tolerated drinking were punished with three Rhenish guilders or with three days with water and bread. Similar regulations existed in many other areas. For example, in 1525 in South Tyrol in the "Merano articles" drinking was forbidden and described as a "very shameless vice" , because "not only men, but also women and virgins would be mocked and made full" . As a result, legislation also influenced this in some countries and the so-called law of justice developed.
In student associations, the term “Schmollis” was and still is used as the “you” word, which is confirmed by “Fiducit!” (Apply) and drinking. This is derived from the Latin "sis mihi mollis amicus" (meaning "Be a close friend!"). A special, ritualized form of drinking is in many student associations as part of the academic drinking culture common. One color student honors another by drinking a certain amount of alcohol. As a rule, these are mainly beer, This is done according to the rules of the beer Comments usually with the words: "Dear color brother 'Couleurname' (beer name, nickname), I bring you a broad (huge) strip" . According to the respective rules, it is now up to the honored to drink to the honored too, or may be obliged to do so. Foxes (novices) can only drink boys (full members) through the fox major (youth worker), but among themselves. The rules are different for each connection.
The "Salamander" (also Schoppensalamander) is a solemn form in honor of guests of the association or particularly deserving brothers. A salamander is "grated" on command. For this purpose, all participants stand up and drink with the shout at the command "ad exercitium salamandri" (Latin for "performing the salamander") cheers their glass as completely as possible. Then the glasses are rubbed or rattled on the table and, at the same time, given a command, placed one or three times on the table with a short, loud blow. In the event of death, a silent funeral salamander in honor of the deceased is common (i.e. without rubbing or rattling). The glass of the deceased is then smashed. For all rituals in German-speaking countries the toast is " cheers “In use.
Further usages regarding alcohol consumption are under Customs in viticulture. Brotherhood drink. libation. toasts and Quotes describe. What amounts of alcohol are presumably not harmful to health is explained in health explained with further information. Regarding alcohol abuse by the antiquity until modern times with bizarre stories and prominent protagonists see below intoxication and drinking culture,