The process was allegedly "invented" by accident in France. Wine producers near the sea used (also) herring kegs from fishermen and tried to remove the undesirable fish smell in the wood by brushing or gouging. When this did not lead to a satisfactory result, the barrels were burned out on the inside. Today, this means the roasting or the barrel penetration of the inner barrel wall Barrels, As a rule, the two barrel bottoms are usually not toasted, as this is very complex. However, this also depends on the barrique manufacturer or on the wishes of the customer (winemaker).
Roasting can be done in a variety of ways, for example over an open oak wood fire, using a gas burner or, more recently, with infrared heat. A heat of 200 to 250 ° Celsius is reached. The time and intensity of the fire determined the degree of toasting: 10 to 15 minutes for wines, 15 to 20 minutes for spirits ( cognac. rum. whiskey Etc.). A very strong toasting causes charring and is therefore called charring. The wood is changed to a depth of two millimeters (light) to four millimeters (strong). After toasting, the barrel is brought into its final shape. To soften the smoke taste, it is filled with water. The water emptied after a while is completely yellow.
The roasted barrique barrels give the wine Barrique additional flavorings, The weaker the degree of roasting, the more ingredients are made from the Oak wood transferred into the wine. Such wines taste "woody". In contrast, wines from heavily roasted barrels taste more of toast and spices, Individual substances are only partially formed by roasting. One of these is phenol aldehyde vanillin that by breaking down lignin arises. Depending on the degree of toasting, certain substances are proportionally increased or reduced. For example, with stronger toasting lactones (Coconut flavor) rather reduced. In any case, this gives the wine a more or less distinctive distinction toast flavor (Wood tone). Heavily toasted barrels can also be used smoky Grade. A negative aspect of toasting - especially with medium - is the increase in salary acetic acid (mostly acetic acid ester) in wood. There are the following degrees of toasting or toasting (see also in the image above):
In the past, toasting was mainly or almost exclusively at Barrels (225 to 500 liters) applied. There has been a renaissance of the large wooden barrel, In connection with this, toasting is also offered for large storage barrels. Especially for red wines, the volumes 1,200 ( piece ) and 2,400 liters (double piece) almost exclusively used with toasting. Due to the significantly larger volume in relation to the surface, toasted large wooden barrels are also suitable for the maturation of certain white wines. In contrast to the classic barrique barrels, which mostly have to be disposed of after being used three times, the large wooden barrels are used for economic reasons.
Complete lists of the numerous vinification measures or cellar techniques, as well as the various types of wine, sparkling wine and distillate regulated by wine law are under the keyword winemaking contain. There is extensive wine law information under the keyword wine law,