By total extract (dry extract) is meant all substances dissolved in the Wine occurrences and at one distillation (Evaporation) of the aqueous-alcoholic portion remain. The totality of all minerals and trace elements is called ash, the amount of all acids as total acidity designated. through metabolomics (new analysis method on molecular level ) around 8,000 different substances have been identified in the wine. The calculation is done in g / l to 10-1 exactly. The vast majority is still unknown. The 50 or so most frequent, together with their interaction, make up the quality or the very special quality of a wine.
For the total extract content of a wine are mainly the Rainfall or. climatic Conditions during the growing season (since all substances are water-soluble), from the roots of the vine (The older the vine, the more pronounced and sprawling the root system) and the soil type with the contained therein nutrients essential. The lower the earnings So the less grapes a vine, the higher the total extract. Also the time of vintage plays an essential role. The later the harvest, the higher the values are. But it's not just that alone Mostgewicht crucial, but the grapes should be as optimal as possible physiological maturity respectively.
Especially the diverse ones flavorings shape that Aroma or that bouquet a wine and can be from a professional degustator (Wine taster) at one wine review also be clearly identified and named. This can also be learned through appropriate exercise. Even by inexperienced persons, the flavors of bitter almond. butter. Cassis (blackcurrant or ribisl), strawberry. clove. yeast. coffee, Cherry, coconut. nutmeg. paprika. pepper. vanilla. lemon and plum are recognized. Each grape has potentially its characteristic, varietal Aromas.
The extraction of the grape must usually takes place in several pressings, The graph clearly shows which parts of the berries and the relevant ingredients of the grapes are affected during the pressing processes (see under 11.a First pressing, 10.a Second pressing, 12.a Third Pressing). The main ingredient in wine makes up to 85% mainly water, the rest are odor and taste affecting substances. These are quantitatively about in that order alcohols ( ethanol. glycerin. methanol ), non-volatile acids ( malic acid. lactic acid. tartaric acid and other), residual sugar. flavorings. minerals. phenols ( anthocyanins. flavonoids. tannins ) proteins. Nitrogen Compounds and vitamins, In total, the proportion in wine is between 17 and 30 g / l. Usually has red wine especially by the phenols higher values than White wine,
In the analytical examination As part of the quality wine test, the content of certain ingredients in wine is determined exactly by physical and chemical measuring methods. That is in the award of the Official test number (Germany) or State test number (Austria) compulsory. The total extract has a qualitative wine review an essential meaning and states whether a wine is considered to be low in extract ( thin. flat. short = to about 15 g / l) or as rich in extracts (Full-bodied, bodied = from about 22 g / l) is classified.
The amount and the specific composition of all substances gives the structure (Framework, body ) and decide on Aroma. bouquet. colour. durability and its developmental capability during the bottle aging - and ultimately the quality of the wine. On quality wine should have at least 20 g / l total extract (previously there was a - now eliminated - statutory requirement of at least 18 g / l). The formula again in short form: total extract minus reducing sugars = sugar-free extract minus non-volatile acids = Extrakrest. The most important ingredients in the wine descending ranked by quantity are:
Grams / liter
|water||780 to 850|
|ethanol (Alcohol) - 8 g of alcohol is around 1% vol alcohol content||50 to 120|
|glycerin = Glycerol (alcohol type)||6 to 25|
|acids = Wine-. Apple-. Milk-. Lemons-. oxalic. Succinic acid Etc.||4 to 15|
|sugar = fructose. glucose. pentoses - see below residual sugar||1 to 50 (250)|
|minerals and trace elements||1.5 to 4.0|
|carbon dioxide (with still wine)||0.5 to 1.5|
|flavorings = ester. eugenol. furfural. phenols. vanillin, Etc.||0.8 to 1.2|
|vitamins = especially B and C||0.4 to 0.7|
|Protein- and nitrogen compounds||0.3 to 1.0|
|methanol (Of alcohol)||0.2 to 0.8|
|colloids (eg polymerized phenols)||0.15 to 1.0|
|sulphurous acid = sulfur dioxide (Sulfites)||0.15 to 0.25|
|phenols = anthocyanins. flavonoids. resveratrol. tannins, Etc.||0.1 to 2.5|
|aldehydes (Alcohol compounds)||0.01 to 0.1|
|Weinstein - Calcium tartrate, potassium hydrogen tartrate||not necessarily|
|depot - precipitated substances (sediment) - see below polymerization||not necessarily|
In the bottle aging or the aging of wine, the proportion of some substances decreases because one part than depot (Sediment) is precipitated. The "sugar-free extract" is determined by selecting the total extract reducing sugar and possibly existing ones sucrose (Total sugar content is called invert sugar indicated) subtracts. The sugar-free extract allows only a limited statement for the quality assessment. Therefore, the "non-volatile acids" calculated as tartaric acid are removed and the "extra residue" is obtained. This determines the "inner quality" of a wine and makes wines best comparable. Very high or very low Extrakrest values may appear wine adulteration (Pantschen) point out.
For certain substances used in the cellar work, there are defined maximum limits in the finished wine, which are, for example ascorbic acid. sulphurous acid and silver chloride (see a complete list below Means in winemaking ). Certain substances in larger quantities indicate defects or in the worst case wine faults out. They are due to unhealthy grape material or deficient hygiene and made mistakes in winemaking. That's among other things acetaldehyde. cadaverine. acetic acid. ethyl carbamate. isoamylamine. histamine. methanol. Ochratoxin A. phenylethylamine. putrescine and tyramine, From a certain amount, they are toxic or unhealthy and are therefore defined with maximum allowable amounts in wine; see below ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake = maximum daily dose, medically safe).
All aids, works and measures in the vineyard during the growth cycle one finds below Weingarten Care, Complete listings of the numerous cellar techniques, as well as a list of the wine-regulated wine, sparkling wine and distillate types are under the keyword winemaking contain. Comprehensive information on wine law is available under the keyword wine law,