Total extract (dry extract) means all substances that are dissolved in the Wine occur and at one distillation (Evaporation) of the aqueous alcoholic portion remain. The entirety of all minerals and trace elements is called ash, the amount of all acids as total acidity designated. through metabolomics (new analysis method on molecular level ) around 7,000 different substances have been identified in the wine. This means that not only the ingredients present in a wine, but also those quality and the origin as well as any manipulations or wine adulteration be determined. The calculation is done in g / l with an accuracy of 10-1. The vast majority is still unknown. The roughly 50 most common, with their interaction, make up the nature or the very special quality of a wine.
For the total extract content of a wine are above all Rainfall respectively. climatic Conditions during the growing season (since all substances are water soluble), from the root system of the vine (the older the vine, the more pronounced and extensive the root system) and from soil type with the contained therein nutrients essential. The lower the earnings, so the less grapes a vine carries, the higher the total extract. Even the time of vintage plays an essential role. The later the harvest, the higher the values are usually. But it's not just that Mostgewicht crucial, but the grapes should be as optimal as possible physiological maturity exhibit.
Especially the diverse ones flavorings shape that Aroma or that bouquet of a wine and can from a professional degustator (Wine taster) at one wine review also be clearly identified and named. This can also be learned through appropriate practice. Even inexperienced people can easily smell the aromas of bitter almond. butter. Cassis (black currant or ribisl), strawberry. clove. yeast. coffee Cherry coconut. nutmeg. paprika. pepper. vanilla. lemon and plum can be recognized. Each grape variety potentially has its characteristic varietal Aromas.
The extraction of the grape must usually takes place in several pressings, The graphic clearly shows which parts of the berries and thus the relevant ingredients of the grapes are affected during the pressing processes (see under 11.a First pressing, 10.a Second pressing, 12.a Third Pressing). The main ingredient in wine is mainly with up to 85% water, the rest are substances that influence smell and taste. In terms of quantity, this is roughly in this order alcohols ( ethanol. glycerin. methanol ), non-volatile acids ( malic acid. lactic acid. tartaric acid and other), residual sugar. flavorings. minerals. phenols ( anthocyanins. flavonoids. tannins ) proteins. Nitrogen Compounds and vitamins, The total amount in wine is between 17 and 30 g / l. Usually has red wine especially due to the phenols higher values than White wine,
In the analytical testing As part of the quality wine test, the content of certain ingredients in the wine is precisely determined using physical and chemical measurement methods. That is when awarding the Official test number (Germany) or State test number (Austria) mandatory. The total extract has a qualitative wine review an essential meaning and states whether a wine is low in extract ( thin. flat. short = up to about 15 g / l) or as rich in extracts (Full-bodied, bodied = from about 22 g / l) is classified.
The amount and the specific composition of all substances result in structure (Framework, body ) and decides on Aroma. bouquet. colour. durability and its development ability during the bottle aging - and ultimately about the quality of the wine. On quality wine should have at least 20 g / l total extract (previously there was a - now eliminated - legal requirement of at least 18 g / l). The formula again in short form: total extract minus reducing sugar = sugar-free extract minus non-volatile acids = extract residue. The main ingredients in the wine, sorted in descending order by quantity, are:
Grams / liter
|water||780 to 850|
|ethanol (Type of alcohol) - 8 g of alcohol corresponds to around 1% vol alcohol content||50 to 120|
|glycerin = Glycerol (type of alcohol)||6 to 25|
|acids = Wine-. Apple-. Milk-. Lemons-. oxalic. Succinic acid Etc.||4 to 15|
|sugar = fructose. glucose. pentoses - see below residual sugar||1 to 50 (250)|
|minerals and trace elements||1.5 to 4.0|
|carbon dioxide (with still wine)||0.5 to 1.5|
|flavorings = ester. eugenol. furfural. phenols. vanillin, Etc.||0.8 to 1.2|
|vitamins = especially B and C||0.4 to 0.7|
|Protein- and nitrogen compounds||0.3 to 1.0|
|methanol (Of alcohol)||0.2 to 0.8|
|colloids (e.g. polymerized phenols)||0.15 to 1.0|
|sulphurous acid = sulfur dioxide (Sulfites)||0.15 to 0.25|
|phenols = anthocyanins. flavonoids. resveratrol. tannins, Etc.||0.1 to 2.5|
|aldehydes (Alcohol compounds)||0.01 to 0.1|
|Weinstein - calcium tartrate, potassium hydrogen tartrate||not necessarily|
|depot - precipitated substances (sediment) - see under polymerization||not necessarily|
In the bottle aging or the aging The proportion of some substances in wine decreases because part is considered depot (Sediment) is precipitated. The "sugar-free extract" is determined by taking the total extract reducing sugar and any existing sucrose (Total sugar content is considered invert sugar specified) deducts. However, the sugar-free extract only allows a limited statement for the quality assessment. Therefore, you subtract the "non-volatile acids" calculated as tartaric acid and get the "extract residue". This determines the "inner quality" of a wine and is the best way to compare wines. Very high or very low extract residue values can occur wine adulteration (Pantschen) point out.
There are defined maximum limits in the finished wine for certain materials used in the cellar work, for example ascorbic acid. sulphurous acid and silver chloride (see a complete list at Means in winemaking ). Certain substances in large quantities indicate defects or, in the worst case, wine faults out. They become poor due to unhealthy grape material hygiene and errors in winemaking. These are, among other things acetaldehyde. cadaverine. acetic acid. ethyl carbamate. isoamylamine. histamine. methanol. Ochratoxin A. phenylethylamine. putrescine and tyramine, From a certain amount, they are toxic or unhealthy and are therefore defined with the maximum permitted amounts in wine; see under ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake = maximum permissible daily dose, medically harmless).
All tools, work and measures in the vineyard during the growth cycle can be found at Weingarten Care, Complete lists of the numerous cellar techniques, as well as a list of wine, sparkling wine and distillate types regulated by wine law are under the keyword winemaking contain. There is extensive wine law information under the keyword wine law,