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training system

training form (GB)
sistema di allevamento (I)
système éducatif (F)
sistema educacional (ES)
sistema educação (PO)

By this one understands different methods, in a specific form the growth of the grapevine to steer. The Rebstock is a climbing plant (Liana), which can not hold itself upright and therefore requires a climbing aid or support structure. The Wild vinesentwine mostly up to young trees and grow with them in the air. For longer management and for the possible use of machinery, the vines must retain their shape and must not (what they would do) grow ever higher. That is why man began thousands of years ago shoots to shorten and artificial support facilities such as piles or sticks, racks and slats with taut strings or wires to use. A decisive measure in the winter break (Rest time) is the pruning in which the one-year wood is pruned. With annual measures (winter cut, summer cut and foliage care ) will assess the impact of apical dominance counteracted in order to maintain the chosen educational system.

Historical systems

From pictorial representations it is proven that already the Egyptian have consciously pulled vines for wine production. A well-known example is that of the tomb of Chaemwese in Thebes around 1450 BC. There are various wine making steps such as grape picking and fermentation in containers, as well as the loading of a ship with amphorae shown. The canopy-shaped overhead form of education shown in the picture is similar to one Pergola- or. Trellis educational system, Most finds come from the modern city of Luxor in Upper Egypt. A private winery is described in inscriptions from the tomb of Metjen, a senior official in the 4th Dynasty (2620-2500 BCE). In Saqqara, in the Nile delta, he owned a large estate with vineyards, which are described in the inscription as follows: A very large pond was created, figs and grapes were planted. Trees and grapes were planted in large quantities and a lot of wine was made from it .

Wall painting in the tomb of Chaemwese in Thebes around 1450 BC Chr. With Weinbaumotiven
The Romans laid beams on four vertically arranged piles, creating a kind of chamber. This historical education with the modifications as closed or open Kammertbau was still in the early 20th century in German viticulture in the palatinate common. The picture on the right shows a medieval depiction of works in the vineyard around the year 1180. Obviously, this is the form of single-parent education which was probably widespread at that time in many countries.
Chamber building and vineyard work in the 12th century Picture left: Vineyard internship Germany
Picture right: The Hague, Royal Library, Public domain, Link

Criteria for the form of education

The criteria for choosing the ideal form of education are, in addition to traditional practices, the soil type, the desired earnings, the climatic Relationships that vine with their vigor and tendency to grow in height or width, the easier control or preventive prevention of Vine diseases as well as the requirements of management. A particular system is also often required by wine law. In the Champagne For example, only four specific education systems are even allowed depending on the grape variety. In the second half of the 20th century, the forms of education have changed drastically. The focus was on rationalization and the requirements of a mechanized Weingarten Care,

The goal of all education systems is to achieve the best possible foliage wall structure in order to ensure the desired quality and quantity, economic advantages and to make optimum use of the available environmental resources. For the selection of the education system is also decisive, among other things, whether wine grapes for one winemaking or table grapes to be produced for consumption and which harvesting method (manual or mechanical) is used. The individual forms of education will depend, among other things, on the height of the trunk, on the distance between the vines, on the manner of attachment of the newly growing fruited shoots, or on the inventor (such as Jules Guyot ) named.

planting forms

Through the wintry pruning It determines where and how many new shoots grow in the spring from the remaining winter buds, from which the shape of the vine develops. With regard to the choice of the education system, the following points have an influence on the grape or later wine quality:

The height of the grape zone is a factor in the workload and susceptibility to certain Vine enemies, The closer to ground, the more labor intensive the care and the more likely it will be in rainy areas mushrooms on the grapes arrive and above all Botrytis, Wrong mildew and black rot cause. An advantage in northern areas is an earlier one maturity, The grape zone is between 80 to 130 centimeters and higher. The height has an effect on the exposition (the angle of sunlight) and thus the distance between the individual Rows of vines,

The chosen system should have a good foliage wall structure. As much as possible leaves should be exposed to direct sunlight during the day. When the leaves are in the shade, the Phototosyntheseleistung,

The pole distance is at a medium height education 1.20 to 1.50 meters and the line width (lane, row) is 1.20 to 1.50 meters, more rarely even up to 3 meters wide. In a high upbringing, the trunks are up to three feet apart. The product of line width and pole distance gives the standing space per floor in m². This results in plant densities of 2,600 to 4,700 or 1,900 to 3,700 sticks per hectare. At a dense planting As a rule, between 6,000 and 7,700 sticks per hectare are set. But there are also very close plantings with less than a meter of line spacing, resulting in 10,000 to 12,000 sticks per hectare.

As a rule, when planting vines cuttings (Seedling) planted. In the rather rare Bunk planting halve the number of planting locations and each occupy two plants side by side in the row direction. Each stick can only unfold in one direction, which must be taken into account when cutting. In principle, this can be applied to almost all educational systems.

Classification of the systems

A grouping of the many, but often very similar systems can be done in different ways. Depending on the amount of manual work you divide into intensive (eg Lyra education. espalier ) and extensive systems (eg Minimal Pruned Cordon Trained ). Depending on the type of support structure, it is subdivided into without support (eg Kouloura ) and with support. In the second, a further grouping takes place after the distribution of the shoots or the deciduous area, according to the type of distribution of the cut fruit wood or whether working with narrow or wide row removal with thereby different vine density.

The vertical systems (eg espalier ) are by far the most common form. The green shoots are formed with several staple wires trellis-shaped. Depending on the height of the trained trunks and the foliage wall design, a distinction is made between lower (trunk 20-50 cm, total height 1.3 m) and high (trunk 1 m and higher, total height up to 2.3 m) systems. The grape zone is near the ground. For the horizontal systems (eg pergola ), the shoots are distributed over the entire surface on a corresponding framework.

For the free-hanging (high) systems (eg Sylvoz. MPCT. Vertiko ), the green shoots can develop for the most part or completely freely. In the vertical and free-hanging systems , a part of the shoots is stapled vertically and a part is free-hanging (Sylvoz). Both Reversal education systems (eg Bock section. Geneva Double Curtain ) is raised from top to bottom instead of from bottom to top. After the support or support framework there are pile supports, wire-frame pile supports, wooden posts or wooden frame scaffolding (eg. pergola. Mosel pile education. Trier wheel, Stockbringing).

According to the distribution and shape of the cut fruit wood, there is a flat bow, half bow, pendulum bow and whole arch form (see below arc ). This is used in many systems, for example Geneva Double Curtain. Guyot. Spurred cordon. espalier and Vertiko,

One year old shoots are cut in the parent and head parenting systems . By regular pruning the trunk end reinforces and gets after years a head-like appearance. The education systems with narrow or wide line removal give plant densities with different vines number / hectare. There are narrow (under 1.8 m), normal (1.8-2.2 m) and spacious (2.5 m and more).

basic forms

One can differentiate in the various forms of education in two large groups. These are education systems without a support framework (that is, ground education and bush education) and the much larger group education systems with support framework (with innumerable variants).

Floor education or crawling Education: The vines are trained completely flat freely growing across the floor without support. The shoots can be four to six meters long and are often arranged in a circle around the head. This allows the grapes to absorb the heat reflected from the ground. Besides, they are like that too wind protected. This is especially true in southern countries Italy ( Sardinia ), on the greek island Santorini with the as Kouloura designated system, as well as in Portugal and Spain application, A disadvantage is the susceptibility to Fungal diseases through the ground contact.

Bush Education : This ancient method has been used in the antiquity applied by the Greeks and adopted by the Romans. It is a special form of head education without support. It is suitable for low-growing vines in low-precipitation vineyards and is now practiced mainly in the Mediterranean. The green shoots are repeatedly during the growing cycle gewipfelt so as not to let it last too long. These include, among others Bock section and gobelet,

Tree Education : This high form of education is common in Italy and Spain. At the Alberata system (Trees) the vines are raised growing on or between trees. In Campania it will be in the DOC area Aversa maintained as a cultural heritage. In Emilia-Romagna, as well as Tuscany and Veneto, there are local variations.

pergola : A used in ancient times, the education system, which for wine grapes and especially Tafelttrauben is used. Between wooden, metal or concrete support piles, horizontal devices such as grid-like wooden racks, horizontal bars or wire frames are installed up to a height of four meters.

Stick culture or pile culture : The vines are raised individually and freestanding on a vertical support pile. This was the most common form in Austria until the 1960s, when it was abandoned by the Hock Culture was replaced. In Germany she is under Mosel pile education known. In Württemberg, the three-legged pile education is widespread, in which the cordons (legs) of a vine are trained on a pole.

pole Culture
By Bauer Karl - Own Work , CC BY 3.0 , Link

Wire frame education : Today the most common worldwide and most common form of education with country-specific different variants. One to four horizontal wires are stretched between a row of piles, to which the growing fruit rods are tied. Depending on the trunk height, there is a low, a medium high and a high form. The shoot growth must be through baste get supported.

Wire frame education
By Jason DeRusha - originally posted to Flickr as Mondavi , CC BY-SA 2.0 , Link

Within the large group wire frame education one can still into the two subgroups cordon and espalier but this illustrates complexity and diversity. Because cordons also play a role in the form of the trellis and there are also trellises in the cordon education.

Variants & designations

Systems or names in alphabetical order with variants or synonyms :

All aids, works and measures in the vineyard can be found under Weingarten Care, Complete listings of the numerous vinification measures and cellar techniques, as well as the various wine-regulated wine, sparkling wine and distillate types are under the keyword winemaking contain. Comprehensive information on wine law is available under the keyword wine law,


Particularly recommendable websites as well as books about Weingartenpflege, which were also extensively used as sources by courtesy of the Ulmer-Verlag, are:

WIKIPEDIA : Reberziehung

The winegrower 1 - viticulture (publishing house Eugen Ulmer - Stuttgart)
1999: Edgar Müller, Erwin Kadisch, Gerd Schulze, Oswald Walg
2008: Edgar Müller, Oswald Walg, Hans-Peter Lipps (founder E. Kadisch) - 3rd edition

Viticulture (publishing house Eugen Ulmer - 2000 Stuttgart) Ernst Vogt, Günter Schruft

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