This is understood to mean different methods to target the growth of the in a specific form grapevine to steer. The Rebstock is a climbing plant (liana) that cannot hold itself upright and therefore needs a climbing aid or support structure. The Wild vinesentwine mostly get up on young trees and grow up with them. For longer cultivation and for the possible use of machines, the vines must keep their shape and must not (what they would do) grow ever higher. That is why man started that thousands of years ago shoots to shorten and artificial support devices such as piles or sticks, frames and slats with tensioned cords or wires to use. A crucial measure in the winter break (Rest time) is the pruning, where the annual wood is cut. With annual measures (winter cut, summer cut and foliage care ) is the impact of apical dominance counteracted in order to maintain the chosen educational system.
From visual representations it is proven that the Egyptian have deliberately grown vines for wine production. A well-known example is that of the tomb of Chaemwese in Thebes around 1450 BC. There are various wine-making steps such as grape harvesting and fermentation in containers, as well as loading a ship with amphorae shown. The canopy-like upbringing form shown in the picture is similar to one Pergola- respectively. Trellis educational system, Most of the finds come from today's city of Luxor in Upper Egypt. A private winery is described in inscriptions from the tomb of Metjen, a high official in the 4th dynasty (2620 to 2500 BC). This had a large estate with vineyards in Sakkara in the Nile Delta, which are described in the inscription as follows: A very large pond was created, figs and grapes were planted. Trees and grapes were planted in large quantities and a lot of wine was made from them .
In the case of the Romans, beams were placed on four vertically arranged piles, creating a kind of chamber. This historical type of upbringing with the modifications as closed or open Kammertbau was still in German viticulture in the early 20th century palatinate common. The picture on the right shows a medieval representation of work in the vineyard around the year 1180. It is obviously the form of the that was probably widespread in many countries at the time Single pile education,
In addition to traditional practices, the criteria for choosing the ideal form of education are soil type, the one you want earnings, the climatic Ratios that vine with their vigor and tendency to grow in height or width, the easier fight or preventive prevention of Vine diseases as well as the management requirements. A certain system is often also required by law. In the Champagne for example, only four specific education systems are even approved, depending on the grape variety. In the second half of the 20th century, the forms of education changed drastically. The focus was on rationalization and the requirements of a mechanized one Weingarten Care,
The goal of all education systems is to achieve the best possible deciduous wall structure in order to ensure the desired quality and quantity, economic benefits and to make optimal use of the available environmental resources. For the selection of the educational system it is also decisive, among other things, whether wine grapes for one winemaking or table grapes should be produced for the traffic and which harvesting method (manual or mechanical) is used. The individual forms of upbringing are, among other things, according to the height of the trunk, the distance between the vines, the type of attachment of the newly growing fruit rods or also according to the inventor (such as Jules Guyot ) named.
Through the wintry pruning It is determined where and how many new shoots grow out of the remaining winter buds in spring, from which the shape of the vine develops. With regard to the choice of the education system, the following points have an influence on the grape or later wine quality:
The height of the grape zone is a factor in the amount of work and vulnerability to certain Vine enemies, The closer to the ground, the more labor-intensive the maintenance becomes and the more likely it can be in rainy areas mushrooms on the grapes arrive and above all Botrytis, Wrong mildew and black rot cause. An advantage in northern areas is an earlier one maturity, The grape zone is between 80 to 130 centimeters and higher. The height affects the exposition (the angle of sunlight) and thus the distance between the individual Rows of vines,
The chosen system should have a good leaf wall structure. As many as possible leaves should be exposed to direct sunlight during the day. If the leaves are in the shade, the sinks Phototosyntheseleistung,
In the case of a medium-high upbringing, the distance between the sticks is 1.20 to 1.50 meters and the line width (alley, row) is 1.20 to 1.50 meters, less often up to 3 meters wide. With a high upbringing, the trunks are up to three meters apart. The product of line width and floor spacing gives the stand space per floor in m². This then results in plant densities of 2,600 to 4,700 or 1,900 to 3,700 sticks per hectare. At a dense planting As a rule, 6,000 to 7,700 sticks are planted per hectare. But there are also very tight plantings with less than one meter line spacing, which results in 10,000 to 12,000 sticks per hectare.
As a rule, when planting vines cuttings (Seedling) planted. With the rather rare Bunk planting the number of planting sites is halved and each planted with two plants side by side in the row direction. Each stick can only unfold in one direction, which must be taken into account when cutting. In principle, this can be applied to almost all educational systems.
The many, but often very similar, systems can be grouped according to different criteria. Depending on the manual workload, one divides into intensive (e.g. Lyra education. espalier ) and extensive systems (e.g. Minimally Pruned Cordon Trained ). According to the type of support structure , one divides into without support (e.g. Kouloura ) and with support. In the case of the second, a further grouping is carried out according to the distribution of the shoots or the leaf area, according to the type of distribution of the cut fruit wood or whether the work is carried out with a narrow or further row distance and therefore different vine density.
The vertical systems (e.g. espalier ) are by far the most common form. The green shoots are formed into a trellis shape with several stitching wires. Depending on the height of the trunks raised and the design of the deciduous wall, a distinction is made between low (trunk 20-50 cm, total height 1.3 m) and tall (trunk 1 m and higher, total height up to 2.3 m) systems. The grape zone is close to the ground. With horizontal systems (e.g. pergola ) the shoots are distributed over the entire area on a corresponding scaffold.
With the free-hanging (high) systems (e.g. Sylvoz. MPCT. Vertiko ) the green shoots can develop largely or completely freely. In the vertical and free-hanging systems , some of the shoots are stapled vertically and some are free-hanging (Sylvoz). Both Reversal education systems (e.g. Bock section. Geneva Double Curtain ) is educated from top to bottom instead of from bottom to top, after the support or the support structure there is pile support , pile support with wire frame scaffolding, wooden post or wooden frame scaffold (e.g. pergola. Single pile education. Trier wheel ).
After the distribution and shape of the cut fruit wood, there is a flat arch, half arch, pendulum arch and full arch form (see under arc ). This is used in many systems, for example Geneva Double Curtain. Guyot. Spurred cordon. espalier and Vertiko,
In the systems of education with trunk and head , annual shoots are cut. Regular trimming strengthens the end of the trunk and gives it a head-like appearance after years. The education systems with narrow or wide line spacing result in planting densities with different numbers of vines / hectare. There are narrow (under 1.8 m), normal (1.8-2.2 m) and spacious (2.5 m and more).
One can differentiate between the two different forms of education in two large groups. These are educational systems without a support structure (that is ground education and bush education) and the much larger group of education systems with a support structure (with countless variants).
Floor education or crawling Education: The vines are trained completely flat on the floor without support free growing. The shoots can be four to six meters long and are often arranged in a circle around the head. This allows the grapes to absorb the heat reflected from the ground. Besides, they are like that too wind protected. This is especially true in southern countries like Italy ( Sardinia ), on the Greek island Santorini with the as Kouloura designated system, as well as in Portugal and Spain application, A disadvantage is the vulnerability to Fungal diseases through ground contact.
Bush education : This ancient method was already used in the antiquity used by the Greeks and adopted by the Romans. It is a special form of head education without support. It is suitable for low-growing vines in low-rainfall wine-growing areas and is now practiced mainly in the Mediterranean. The green shoots become several times during the vegetation cycle gewipfelt in order not to let it get too long. These include, among others Bock section and gobelet,
Tree education : This high level of education is common in Italy and Spain. At the Alberata system (Saplings) the vines are grown growing on or between trees. In Campania it will be in the DOC area Aversa cultivated as a cultural heritage. There are local variants in Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany and Veneto.
pergola : A system of education used in ancient times, which for wine grapes and especially Tafelttrauben is used. Horizontal supports such as lattice-like wooden frames, horizontal bars or wire frames are installed between supporting posts made of wood, metal or concrete up to a height of four meters.
Single pile education (Crop culture) : The vines are raised individually and free-standing on a vertical support post. This was the most common form in Austria until the 1960s, when it was removed from the Hock Culture was replaced. In Germany it is known as Moselle pile education. In Württemberg, three-legged stake training is widespread, in which the cordons (legs) of a vine are each raised on a stake.
Wire frame education : Today's most common and by far the most common form of education with different country-specific variants. One to four horizontal wires are stretched between a row of piles, to which the growing fruit rods are tied. Depending on the trunk height, there is a low, a medium high and a high shape. The shoot growth must go through baste get supported.
Within the large group wire frame education one can still fall into the two sub-groups cordon and espalier divide, which illustrates the complexity and diversity. Because cordons also play a role in the trellis shape and trellises also exist in cordon education.
Systems or names in alphabetical order with variants or synonyms :
All tools, work and measures in the vineyard can be found at Weingarten Care, Complete lists of the numerous vinification measures or cellar techniques, as well as the various types of wine, sparkling wine and distillate regulated by wine law are under the keyword winemaking contain. There is extensive wine law information under the keyword wine law,
Particularly recommended websites and books on vineyard maintenance, which were also used extensively as sources with the kind permission of Ulmer Verlag, are:
WIKIPEDIA : education
Der Winzer 1 - Viticulture (Verlag Eugen Ulmer - Stuttgart)
1999: Edgar Müller, Erwin Kadisch, Gerd Schulze, Oswald Walg
2008: Edgar Müller, Oswald Walg, Hans-Peter Lipps (born E. Kadisch) - 3rd edition
Viticulture (Verlag Eugen Ulmer - 2000 Stuttgart) Ernst Vogt, Günter Schruft
Chamber building: Vineyard internship Germany
Working in the vineyard: The Hague, Royal Library, Public Domain, Link
Single pile: By Bauer Karl - Own work, CC BY 3.0 , Link
Wire frame: By Jason DeRusha - op Flickr as Mondavi , CC BY-SA 2.0 , Link