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Traminer

The exact origin of the white grape variety is uncertain; she could out Germany. France or Czech Republic (Moravia) originate. The different game types differ in berry color, Aroma. leaf shape and grape size, as well as regarding vigor, earnings and susceptibility to disease, but have almost the same DNA profile with little differences. They are therefore regarded as a single grape variety, although in many grape variety catalogs they are very well listed separately. There are three types of game:

Savagnin Blanc (in France) or Gelber Traminer, Weißer Traminer, Traminer (in German-speaking countries): The French name (also Savagnin for short) is usually given in international sources or grape variety catalogs. It is not always clear whether it is actually the White Traminer or the Gewürztraminer. This variety is characterized by odorless, yellow-green berries.

Gewurztraminer or Red Traminer or (especially in France) Savagnin Rose Aromatique: The German name (in English-speaking countries often with "u") is surprisingly common internationally. This by far the most common variety is characterized by aromatic, reddish / orange berries.

Savagnin Rose or Klevener de Heiligenstein or Savagnin Rose Non Musqué: This non-aromatic variety with red-brown berries is rare; it comes almost exclusively in French Alsace in front. In the German-speaking countries, the name or the variety can hardly be found.

Traminer - White / Yellow Traminer (Savagnin Blanc) and Gewürztraminer

In German-speaking countries, the sources mostly differentiate between the two types of white traminer or yellow traminer and Gewürztraminer or red traminer. If only the name Traminer is given, it is mostly the Gewürztraminer, but it can also mean the White / Yellow Traminer. For the two types of game Gewurztraminer and Savagnin Rose there are separate keywords with additional information.

By performed independently by different biologists DNA analysis in Italy, France, Germany and Austria it was proven that the French varieties Savagnin Blanc, Rose and Aromatique, the Swiss varieties Heida, Heidarot and Païen, the Italian Traminer Aromatico and all varieties known as Traminer in German-speaking countries are identical. The Swiss biologist Dr. José Vouillamoz therefore thinks that it is wrong to speak of a "Traminer family", since this also associates other kinship relationships such as "siblings", "nephews", "nieces", "aunts" and "uncles", which is not the case ,

The around 200 Synonyms in countless languages are records and prove the old age and widespread use. In most countries there is no separation when recording the game types, but these are usually shown together. The following synonyms are used as a general, neutral term for Traminer or for the white / yellow variant, but also, confusingly, often for all variants (there is no clear assignment). The most important, alphabetically grouped by country, are Adelfranke, Edeltraube, Franconian, Frennschen, Frentschen, Klevner, Rotfrensch, Weißfrennschen ( Germany ); Noble white, white noble ( Alsace ); Beaunié, Fromenteau, Fourmentans, Gentil Blanc, Naturé, Naturel, Sauvagnin, Savagnin Jaune, Savagnin Vert, Viclair ( France ); Traminac ( Croatia ); Klevner ( Austria ); Heida, Païen ( Switzerland ); Brynšt, Drumin, Prync, Tramín Bíly ( Czech Republic ); Traminec ( Slovenia ); Old German / German, Malvoisie ( South-Tirol ); Formentin ( Hungary ). The specific synonyms for the two types of game Gewurztraminer and Savagnin Rose are listed there.

Traminer's parenthood has not been fully clarified despite several DNA analyzes, or there are three different theses. The first thesis is that the Traminer is out Wild vines was selected. Now there is one according to the DNA comparison Parent-offspring relationship between Pinot and Traminer. The assumption of a direct wild vine descent of the Traminer is only valid if Traminer is a parent (and not a descendant) of Pinot. That would in turn be based on the assumption that the French name Savagnin derives from "sauvage" (wild), as well as with the morphological Similarity between leaves of Savagnin and wild vines occurring in the Rhine valley conform. To date, however, no genetic link between Traminer and wild grapes has been discovered. The second thesis assumes a cross between Pinot x unknown cultivar and the third thesis assumes a cross between two unknown extinct cultivars. The most likely thesis is a presumably natural cross between Pinot x unknown variety.

The Traminer is considered leading variety from which many others are descended. His descendants can as the Frankish Gene pool of the Central European grape varieties can be considered. He therefore played alongside Gouais Blanc (White Heunisch) plays a crucial role in the creation of many esteemed European varieties. through DNA analysis Many direct descendants, which were created by probably natural crosses, were identified and Parent-offspring relationships found (which means that Traminer could be either a parent or a descendant). In addition, Traminer varieties were crossing partners for many new varieties,

The Traminer is next to that muscatel one of the oldest cultivated vines in Europe. There are various hypotheses about the origin. An origin from Egypt or the Middle East was founded by archaeological finds of ancient grape seeds that are said to resemble the Traminer (Savagnin Blanc). However, this is doubtful, because a comparison or identification using grape seeds is very difficult. Also an origin from Greece is unlikely since no genetic links to Greek varieties have been found to date. The German ampelographer Hermann Goethe (1837-1911) assumed a lineage of ancient grape varieties and calls that of Pliny the Elder (23-79) mentioned Aminea, In other sources too Nomentana called. But there is no botanical evidence.

A common origin is South-Tirol because there is a place called Tramin (Termeno) south of Bolzano. The German botanist Hieronymus buck (1498-1554) reported in his "Kreütter Buch" in the 1546 issue of "vil (viel) in the Etsch and Traminer-Draubens growing to Tramyn". The French ampelographer Pierre Galet (1921-2019) adhered to this theory and believed that the variety should have spread there first to Switzerland and Germany and then to France. However, some facts speak against a South Tyrolean origin. For example, ampelographic works from Italy before the 19th century lack any references to Traminer or one of its synonyms. Traminer wines from South Tyrol have been traded since the Middle Ages, but the name should refer to the "Great Traminer" Räuschling (Traminer descendant), which has been mentioned in Tyrol as "German grapes" (Drutsch) since the late Middle Ages.

The certified biologist Andreas Young believed to be the origin of Moravia, part of Czech Republic, At the time of the Franconian Empire, he became associated with others in connection with the Christianization of the Slavs in the early Middle Ages Franconian varieties from the eastern Awarenmark over the Danube imported into Franconia and Württemberg and from there into western Central Europe. In the Franconian Empire, it was widely used as "Kleinfränkische" or "Rotfränkische" along the western Alps (Savoy, Wallis, western Switzerland) as well as in the French Jura and Alsace. The Pannonian descendants of Traminer Grüner Veltliner, Rotgipfler and Silvaner support this thesis (the landscape of Pannonia included Lower Austria and Burgenland, as well as western Hungary).

According to the available historical and genetic data, however, it is mostly assumed that it originated in northeastern France (Franche-Comté, Chamapgne-Ardenne, Lorraine and Alsace) and southwest Germany (Rhineland-Palatinate and Baden-Württemberg). The variety was often mentioned under its synonyms in old documents, making it difficult to identify precisely. Because Gentil Blanc z. B. was for the varieties Chardonnay. Pinot Blanc and Savagnin Blanc used. Likewise was Fromenteau a frequently used name. In South Tyrol, a “Vini de Traminne” was mentioned in Bolzano as early as 1242 (and interpreted as evidence of its origin), but it means a “wine from Tramin” (the place) and not the grape variety.

The first reliable mention comes from the year 1483 in the Bebenhausen monastery near Stuttgart under the name "Frennsch and Traminer Stoeck". The Swiss botanist Johannes Bauhin (1541-1613) mentions "Muscateller" and "Traminner" as widespread varieties in the Rhine Valley in his posthumously published work in 1650. A Traminer wine was mentioned in the Palatinate town of Rhodt in 1591. There is also a listed vineyard here, where allegedly some 350-year-old Traminer vines from the time of the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) stand, from which wine is still made. In Switzerland, the Heida variety was mentioned in 1586 in the canton of Valais. This was done much later in 1736 in France under the name Savagnin Blanc. So the origin from Germany seems much more credible.

The early ripening vine is resistant to the thick berry skin fungal diseases, especially against Botrytis, As a rule, the berries have a balanced sugar-acid ratio. The variety produces well-structured white wines with quality and aging potential. Especially the most common type of game Gewurztraminer provides white wines rich in extract and alcohol varietal, intense aromas musk (musqué), bitter orange, lychee (lychee tree), marzipan and roses, That is why the vine is one of them bouquet places,

In many documentations and statistics, it is not clearly clear which type of Traminer it is. By far the most common variant in terms of quantity is the Gewürztraminer, so this is not a problem. Most countries show all Traminer varieties together in their grape variety statistics; France and Switzerland are exceptions. In the statistics of Kym Anderson from 2010, quantities are sold under the three names Gewurztraminer (with "u"), Savagnin Blanc and Savagnin Rose (here there are only two countries). The first two sets are under the keyword Gewurztraminer contain.

Source: Wine Grapes / J. Robinson, J. Harding, J. Vouillamoz / Penguin Books Ltd. 2012
White Traminer: MSBu Internet & Werbung
Gewürztraminer: German Wine Institute DWI

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