The exact origin of the white grape variety is uncertain; she could out Germany. France or Czech Republic (Moravia). The different game types differ in terms of berry color, Aroma. leaf shape and grape size, as well as regarding vigilance, earnings and susceptibility to disease, but they are almost the same DNA profile with slight differences. They are therefore considered as a single grape variety, although they are very well separated in many grape varieties catalogs. There are three types of games:
Savagnin Blanc (in France) or Yellow Traminer, White Traminer, Traminer (in German-speaking countries): The French name (also short Savagnin) is mostly given in international sources or grape variety catalogs. Whether it is actually the White Traminer or the Gewürztraminer is not always unequivocal. This variety is characterized by odorless, yellow-green berries.
Gewurztraminer or Red Traminer or (especially in France) Savagnin Rose Aromatique: The German name (in English-speaking countries often with "u") is, surprisingly, internationally common. This most common variety is characterized by aromatic, reddish / orange berries.
Savagnin Rose or Klevener de Heiligenstein or Savagnin Rose Non Musqué: This non-aromatic variety with reddish-brown berries is rare; it comes almost exclusively in French Alsace in front. In German-speaking countries, the name or variety is hard to find.
In German-speaking countries, the sources mostly distinguish between the two varieties: White Traminer or Yellow Traminer and Gewürztraminer or Roter Traminer. If only the name Traminer is given, it is mostly the Gewürztraminer, but it can also be the white / yellow Traminer meant. For the two varieties Gewurztraminer and Savagnin Rose There are own keywords with additional information.
By independently performed by various biologists DNA analysis In Italy, France, Germany and Austria, it has been proven that the French varieties Savagnin Blanc, Rose and Aromatique, the Swiss varieties Heida, Heidarot and Païen, the Italian Traminer Aromatico and all in German-speaking countries as Traminer designated varieties are identical. The Swiss biologist dr. José Vouillamoz thinks, therefore, that it is wrong to speak of a "Traminer family," as it also associates other relationships such as "siblings," "nephews," "nieces," "aunts," and "uncles," which is not true ,
The approximately 200 Synonyms in countless languages are record and prove the old age and wide distribution. In most countries there is no separation in the recording of varieties, but these are usually reported together. The following synonyms are commonly used as a generic, neutral name for Traminer or for the white / yellow variety, but also confusingly for all varieties (there is no unique assignment). The most important alphabetically grouped by country are Adelfrank, Edeltraube, Frankish, Frennschen, Frentschen, Klevner, Rotfrensch, Weißfrennschen ( Germany ); Noble White, Whiteedler ( Alsace ); Beaunié, Fromenteau, Fourmentans, Gentil Blanc, Naturé, Naturel, Sauvagnin, Savagnin Jaune, Savagnin Vert, Viclair ( France ); Traminac ( Croatia ); Klevner ( Austria ); Heida, Païen ( Switzerland ); Brynšt, Drumin, Prync, Tramín Bíly ( Czech Republic ); Traminec ( Slovenia ); Old German / German, Malvoisie ( South-Tirol ); Formentin ( Hungary ). The specific synonyms for the two varieties Gewurztraminer and Savagnin Rose are listed there.
The parenting of Traminer is not completely clear despite several DNA analyzes, or there are three different theses. The first thesis is that the Traminer out Wild vines was selected. Now there is a DNA comparison Parent-offspring relationship between Pinot and Traminer. However, the assumption of a direct grape origin of the Traminer is only valid if Traminer is a parent (and not a descendant) of Pinot. This, in turn, would be based on the assumption that the French name Savagnin derives from "sauvage" (wild), as well as with the morphological Similarity between leaves of savagnin and wild vines occurring in the rhine valley. To date, no genetic link between Traminer and wild vines has been discovered. The second hypothesis assumes a cross between Pinot x of unknown variety and the third thesis of a cross between two unknown extinct varieties. The most likely thesis is a presumably natural cross between Pinot x unknown variety.
The Traminer is considered as leading variety from which many others are descended. His offspring can be considered the Frankish Gene pool of Central European grape varieties. He thus played next to the Gouais blanc (White Heunisch) a crucial role in the emergence of many valued European varieties. through DNA analysis many direct progeny, probably caused by natural crosses, were identified and Parent-offspring relationships determined (which means that Traminer could be either parent or offspring). In addition, Traminer varieties were crossing partners in many new varieties,
The Traminer is next to the muscatel around one of the oldest cultivated vines in Europe. There are different hypotheses about the origin. An origin Egypt or the Middle East was founded by archaeological finds of ancient grape seeds, which are said to resemble the Traminer (Savagnin Blanc). But this is doubtful, because a comparison or an identification by means of grape seeds is very difficult. Also an origin Greece It is unlikely because no genetic links to Greek varieties have been identified so far. The German Ampelograph Hermann Goethe (1837-1911) suspected a descent of ancient grape varieties and calls that from Pliny the Elder (23-79) Aminea, In other sources too Nomentana called. But missing botanical evidence.
A commonly mentioned origin is South-Tirol because there is a place called Tramin (Termeno) south of Bolzano. The German botanist Hieronymus buck (1498-1554) reported in his "Kreutzer book" in the edition 1546 of "vil (much) growing in the Adige and Tramyn Traminner grapes". Also the French Ampelograph Pierre Galet (* 1921) was attached to this theory and said that the variety should have spread there first to Switzerland and to Germany and then to France. However, a number of facts speak against South Tyrolean origin. For example, in 19th-century ampelographic works from Italy, there is no evidence of Traminer or any of its many synonyms. Although Traminer wines from South Tyrol have been traded since the Middle Ages, the name is likely to refer to the "Great Traminer" Räuschling (Traminer offspring), which is mentioned in Tyrol as "German grapes" (Drutsch) since the late Middle Ages.
The diplomologist Andreas Young suspected as origin Moravia, part of Czech Republic, At the time of the Franconian Empire he was in connection with the Christianization of the Slavs in the early Middle Ages together with others Franconian varieties from the eastern Awarenmark over the Danube to Franconia and Württemberg and from there to western Central Europe. In the Frankish Empire, he found as "small Franconian" and "Rotfränkische" strong spread along the Western Alps (Savoy, Valais, Western Switzerland) and in the French Jura and Alsace. The Pannonian Traminer descendants Grüner Veltliner, Rotgipfler and Silvaner support this thesis (the landscape Pannonien comprised Lower Austria and Burgenland, as well as West Hungary).
According to the available historical and genetic data, however, today it is mostly based on an origin in northeastern France (Franche-Comté, Chamapgne-Ardenne, Lorraine and Alsace) and southwestern Germany (Rhineland-Palatinate and Baden-Württemberg). The variety was often mentioned in their old documents under their synonyms, making accurate identification difficult. Because Gentil Blanc z. B. was for the varieties Chardonnay. Pinot Blanc and Savagnin Blanc used. It was the same Fromenteau a frequently used name. In South Tyrol, although a "Vini de Traminne" was already mentioned in 1242 in Bolzano (and interpreted as evidence of its origin), but this is to be understood as a "wine from Tramin" (the place) and not the grape variety.
The first reliable mention dates back to 1483 in the monastery Bebenhausen near Stuttgart under the name "Frennsch and Traminer Stoeck". The Swiss botanist Johannes Bauhin (1541-1613) calls in his posthumously published in 1650 "Muscateller" and "Traminner" as widespread varieties in the Rhine Valley. In the Palatinate Rhodt a Tramin wine was mentioned in 1591. Here there is also a listed vineyard, where supposedly already about 350 years old Traminer vines from the time of the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) stand, from which still wine is pressed. In Switzerland, the variety Heida was mentioned in 1586 in the canton of Valais. Much later, this was done in 1736 in France under the name Savagnin Blanc. Thus, the origin of Germany seems much more credible.
The early ripening vine is resistant to the thick berry skin fungal diseases especially against Botrytis, As a rule, the berries have a balanced sugar-acid ratio. The variety produces well-structured white wines with quality and aging potential. Especially the most common variety Gewurztraminer provides extract and alcohol rich white wines varietal, intense aromas after musk (musqué), bitter orange, lychee (lychee), marzipan and roses, Therefore, the vine is one of the bouquet places,
In many documentations or statistics it is not clear which Traminer variety is exactly what it is. However, by far the most common variety is the Gewürztraminer, so this is not so problematic. Most countries share all Traminer varieties in their grape variety statistics; Exceptions are France and Switzerland. In the statistics of Kym Anderson from the 2010 quantities under the three names Gewurztraminer (with "u"), Savagnin Blanc and Savagnin Rose (here there are only two countries) expelled. The first two sets are under the keyword Gewurztraminer contain.
Source : Wine Grapes / J. Robinson, J. Harding, J. Vouillamoz / Penguin Books Ltd. 2012
Pictures 1 : MSBu Internet & Advertising (left) and German Wine Institute DWI (right)
Pictures 2 : Ursula Bruehl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)