Geographical term (trans = beyond) or historical landscape for the area south of the 1,500 km long fold mountain range Caucasus between the Caspian and the Black Sea. These are the former USSR countries today Armenia. Azerbaijan and Georgia as well as adjacent parts of the Turkey that were once part of ancient Armenia. This area in Asia applies together with the one to the south Mesopotamia as one of the main candidates for the cradle or origin of wine culture. According to the latest research, however, the origin is said to be in the neighboring Turkish southeastern Anatolia. That is near the mountain Ararat, at which loud Bible Noah landed and became the first winegrower.
In the fertile foothills of this mountain range (the Romans called the area the "end of the world") the first of humans already in the Stone Age 6,000 to maybe 8,000 years ago Wild vines primitively selected and wine-like beverages produced. This is proven by grape seeds and artifacts found in Georgia and Turkey that were examined using the radiocarbon method (C-14). In ancient times the area was used by the Assyrians, Persians, Romans, Byzantines and Arabs ruled. The Russian conquest was completed around 1864. These countries have had a major impact on viticulture. Partially (especially in Georgia ) still ancient wine making techniques in use. See also under Ancient wines and Ancient grape varieties,