Trigeminal nerve (trigeminal nerve) is the fifth, very sensitive cranial nerve of the facial skull. It owes its name to the fork in three main branches, one of which also has olfactory functions. It conveys tactile (regarding the sense of touch) sensations of the facial region, which are perceived when drinking wine or alcohol on the mucous membranes of the oral cavity and nose. These are irritative (irritating, exciting) sensations of a physical and less chemical nature. The trigeminal stimuli are a partial aspect of the haptic Perception. These are not typical olfactory or Taste sensations, although the effects are relatively heavily involved in the overall impression.
Trigeminal contributes significantly to the intensity of olfactory sensation (around 30%). In smokers, the nasal trigeminal sensitivity is reduced olfactory (smelling) sensitivity unaffected. Trigeminal stimuli can be both positive (alcohol, horseradish, menthol, carbonic acid, paprika. pepper, Mustard, onion), but also negative (ammonia, smoke, sulfur ) his. A typical reaction to trigeminal stimuli is increased salivation. If it is pronounced, this is a pain reaction and therefore a preventive warning signal from the body.
This in paprika (Chilli, pepperoni) included capsaicin and that in pepper contained piperine cause the two trigeminal sensations peppery and sharp, The alkaloids, which are very similar in their effects, pretend to the brain a critical high temperature in the mouth and create the feeling of burning in the heat-sensitive pain channels. The likeness of sharp and hot (both labeled "hot" in English) is already on when consumed receptor level founded. The same receptors also react to heat stimuli above 43 degrees Celsius, that is, to foods that are too hot and “burn” the tongue or the palate. The organism counteracts this sensation, which is often painful due to apparent heating, by increasing blood flow to the tissue for the purpose of dissipating heat. This leads to local reddening like a slight burn.
As part of a wine address become the terms aggressive. astringent biting burning punchy. hot cold cooling peppery tingling sharp. tangy, stinging and fusty used. Above all, have an influence alcohol content (especially with distillates), bitterness. carbonic acid. acids. tannins and viscosity, These impressions are often confused with the sense of taste because they are also absorbed through the mouth. The term “mouthfeel” is also used for the overall trigeminal impression. Scientific studies take place at the University of California in Davis (California) and at the University of Adelaide (South Australia). from AWRI (Australian Wine Research Institute) was analogous to that aroma wheel the University of California 1998 developed a "mouthfeel wheel", which in the groups dynamics, taste, harsh, complexity, consistency, irritation, acidity, heaviness, texture. drying, immature, warmth and softness of the surface suggests 53 terms as nomenclature. See also under gustatory. olfactory and sensory,