Trigeminus (trigeminal nerve, German Drilling nerve) is the fifth, very sensitive cranial nerve of the facial skull. It owes its name to the fork in three main branches, one of which also has olfactory functions. It conveys tactile sensations of the facial region, which are perceived on the mucous membranes of the oral cavity and the nose when drinking wine or drinking alcohol. These are irritative (irritating, exciting) sensations of a physical and less chemical nature. The trigeminal stimuli are a partial aspect of the haptic Perception. These are not typical olfactory or Taste sensations although the effects on the overall impression are relatively strong.
Trigeminal nerve contributes significantly to the sense of smell (around 30%). In smokers, the nasal-trigeminal sensitivity is reduced, the olfactory (smelling) sensibility unaffected. Trigeminal stimuli can be both positive (alcohol, kren, menthol, carbonic acid, paprika. pepper, Mustard, onion), but also negative (ammonia, smoke, sulfur ) his. A typical reaction to trigeminal stimuli is increased salivation. In severe cases, this is a pain reaction and thus a precautionary warning signal of the body.
This in paprika (Chilli, pepperoni) capsaicin and that in pepper contained piperine cause the two trigeminal sensory impressions peppery and sharp, The alkaloids, which are very similar in their effect, give the brain a critically high temperature in the mouth and create a sensation of burning in the heat-sensitive channels of pain. The similarity of sharp and hot (both in English with "hot") when eating is already on receptor level founded. The same receptors also react to heat stimuli above 43 Celsius, ie too hot food, in which one "burns" the tongue or the palate. This sensation, which is often painful due to apparent heating, counteracts the organism by increasing the circulation of blood to the tissue for the purpose of heat dissipation. This causes local redness as with a light burn.
As part of a wine address become the concepts aggressive. astringent, biting, burning, punchy. hot, cold, cooling, peppery, tingling, sharp. tangy, piercing and fusty used. Above all, they have influence alcohol content (especially for distillates), bitterness. carbonic acid. acids. tannins and viscosity, These impressions are therefore often confused with the sense of taste, because they are also absorbed through the mouth. The term "mouthfeel" is also used for the trigeminal overall impression. Scientific investigations take place at the University of California in Davis (California) and at the University of Adelaide (South Australia). from AWRI (Australian Wine Research Institute) was analogous to the aroma wheel In 1998, the University of California developed a "mouthfeel wheel", which in the groups dynamics, taste nature, harsh, complexity, consistency, irritation, acid, gravity, texture. drying, immature, warmth and softness of the surface 53 suggests terms as nomenclature. See also below gustatory. olfactory and sensory,