The country has an ancient wine-making tradition, because at least in the 4th millennium BC. BC there were cultivated vineyards in Anatolia, in the area Transcaucasia (that with Mesopotamia considered the cradle of wine culture) and on the coast of the Caspian Sea. During excavations in the city of Catal Hüyük, built in the 7th millennium BC, representations were found that suggest that winemaking was carried out at that time. An ancestor of the grape variety Kalecik Karasi knew, according to a naturally not verifiable hypothesis, already ~ 1,500 BC. The Hittites. Near the border too Armenia lies the famous mountain Ararat, where according to the narrative in the Bible after the flood Noah landed with his ark and "became a winegrower". According to the latest research, the origin of the cultivated grapevine or the viticulture culture is in Southeastern Anatolia.
Through the Islamization of the country and the related alcohol ban The first incision occurred in the 8th century. In the Ottoman period (1300-1920) only Christian minorities such as Greeks and Armenians were allowed to produce wine with high taxes. In the Tanzimat period, viticulture was revived from the middle of the 19th century and exports increased - due to the Phylloxera disaster in Europe - to 30 million liters annually by the beginning of the 20th century. After at the Peace of Lausanne in 1923 large areas of land, among others Greece had to be ceded and the majority of the Greek minority important for viticulture left the country, there was again a decline.
From 1925, the new republic, under the liberal political leader Mustafa Kemal Ataturk (1881-1938), tried to revitalize viticulture. The statesman known as a wine lover paved the way for private wineries. In 1926 Nihat A. Kutman founded the “Maison Vinicole” (later Doluca) winery in Istanbul. The next one was Mehmet Cenap And in Ankara in 1929, which started its operation Kavaklidere (Poplar Valley) called. The most important wine-growing regions are in the Aegean region in the west of the country, where the climate is more humid than in the dry interior and two thirds of the wine is produced.
This is the European part of Turkey with the regions of Marmaris and Thrace (Bilecik, Canakkale, Edirne, Kirklareli, Tekirdag), and the Aegean coast of Anatolia (Denizli, Izmir, Manisa). Smaller areas are located on the Black Sea (Corum, Kastamonu, Samsun, Tokat), in Central Anatolia (Kirikkale, Kirsehir, Nevsehir, Nigde), Eastern Anatolia (Elazig) and Southeastern Anatolia (Diyarbakir, Gaziantep, Mardin, Sanliurfa). In 2012, the vineyard area totaled 497,000 hectares behind China Fifth in the world, from which only 546,000 hectoliters of wine were produced (see also under Wine production volumes ).
With around three quarters of the grape harvest, Turkey is the world's largest producer of table grapes and second largest producer for raisins, Both are largely from the variety Sultana (Sultaniye) produces. Traditional grape products are honey-like grape syrup Pekmes and the fermented grape juice Hardaliye, There are many hundreds, often not officially recorded autochthonous Grape varieties. The Blend comprises the wine varieties with the vanishingly small share of only 13,000 hectares:
|vine||colour||Synonyms or name in Turkey||hectare|
|Bogazkere||red||Bogazkarasi, Saraplik Siyah||1106|
|Dimrit||red||Dimlit, Dimrit Kara, Dirmit Kara||863|
|Kalecik Karasi||red||Kara Kalecik||861|
|Narince||White||Güzül Üzüm, Kazova, Narance||769|
|Alicante Henri Bouschet||red||-||488|
|Papazkarasi||red||Papaska Neagra, Papaskara, Papaskarasi||175|
|Muscat Blanc / muscatel||White||Beyaz Misket||114|
|Adakarasi||red||Adakarassy, Avsa Adasi, Erdek||69|
|Karalahna||red||Kara Lahna, Lahna Kara||43|
|Karasakiz||red||Kara Sakiz, Karakiz, Karassakyz||43|
|Garnacha Tinta||red||Grenache Noir||33|
|Cavus||White||Caus Beli, Tchaouch, Tsaousi||30|
|Vasilaki||White||Altintas, Anadolu Yapincagi||4|
|Beylerce||White||Beylace, Beyleri, Bilecik||?|
|Hasandede Beyazi||White||Ahmet Bey, Aseri, Hasandede||?|
|Hasandede Siyahi||red||Hasandede, Hasandede Noir||?|
|Horozkarasi||red||Horoz Karasi, Khorozkarassi, Kilis Karasi||?|
|Kabarcik Beyaz||White||Beyaz Kabarcik, Kabarcik, Sari Kabarcik||?|
|Yapincak||White||Erkek Yapincak, Kinali Yapincak, Yapakak||?|
The Multi Mey Icki Sanay (former state company Tekel ) produces or sells most of the spirits and wines (owned by Diageo ). Other production companies are Diren, Doluca, Karmen, Taskobirlik and Kavaklidere produced. The most famous brand wines count the red wines Buzbag, Villa Neva and yakut as well as the white wines Cankaya, Thrakya (Sémillon) and Villa Doluca (Sultaniye and Sémillon). The most important alcoholic drink, however, is that made from dried grapes (almost exclusively from Tekel) Raki, the anise is added. The annual per capita consumption of wine is less than one liter. Great efforts are being made to follow the western quality standard.