The region with the capital Florence is in the center Italy on the Ligurian coast; also the third largest Italian island Elba is one of them. It adjoins the north Liguria and Emilia-Romagna, to the east Brands and Umbria and in the south Lazio, Next to the Piedmont Tuscany is probably the most famous Italian wine region and also one of the most beautiful areas in the country. Long before the Romans built here Etruscan Wine, so it is one of the oldest wine regions in Europe. In antiquity, the area formed the land named after the primitive people Etruria. In Roman, this means Tuscia, from which Tuscany then emerged. From the third century BC, the Etruscans were absorbed by the Romans. The Romans lent small estates to veteran legionaries for their services to the homeland.
After the decline of the Roman Empire, Tuscany was ruled by Goths, Byzantines, Lombards and Franks. Under Emperor Charlemagne (742-814), the Via Francigena (Frankenstrasse) was built, which connected northern and southern Italy and in Tuscany by Lucca, San Gimignano, Siena and Radicofani led. From the 11th century emerged the long-hostile city-states of Florence and Siena, and further north Genoa and Venice, At that time, the demand of the rapidly growing cities started the flourishing of Tuscan wine culture. In the Middle Ages, the "wine of Florence" became widely known and until England u. Russia sold.
Inseparable from the Tuscan history is the family of the Medici which promoted art, science and viticulture to the highest degree. From the beginning of the 16th century, Tuscany was united under her rule and raised in 1569 by Pope Pius V (1504-1572) to the Grand Duchy. Grand Duke Cosimo III. (1642-1723) introduced at the beginning of the 17th century 150 grape varieties, including Cabernet Sauvignon (Uva Francesca). After the extinction of the Medici, Franz Stephan of Lorraine inherited the legacy. In 1860, Tuscany became popular by referendum with the kingdom Sardinia united with it in 1861 in the new kingdom of Italy. Under Cosimo III. In 1716, the boundaries for the areas were also changed Carmignano. Chianti. Pomino and Val d'Arno di Sopra, these are therefore among the first officially established Origin designations Europe. In the 19th century Baron Bettino defined Ricasoli (1809-1880) the strict rules for the production of Chianti. This also started the rapid rise of the region to a wine power not only in Italy.
The approximately 23,000 square kilometer region is bounded on the north and east by the Apennines with the 2,216-meter Monte Terminillo. The vineyards extend from the mountains to the Tyrrhenian coast, they cover about 58,000 hectares of vineyards. Two thirds of them lie on sunny mountain slopes between 100 and 500 meters above sea level. The vineyards alternate with olive groves and extensive forests. A total of 14 beautiful wine roads lead through the region. The most important red wines are Alicante ( Alicante Henri Bouschet ) Barsaglina (Massaretta) Brunello (Sangiovese clone) Cabernet Franc. Cabernet Sauvignon. Canaiolo Nero. Ciliegiolo, Colorino ( abrusco ), Malvasia Nera ( Malvasia Nera di Brindisi ) Merlot, Pinot Nero ( Pinot Noir ) Prugnolo Gentile (Sangiovese clone) Pugnitello. Sangiovese (Morellino) Syrah and Vermentino Nero,
The most important white wines are Albarola, Ansonica ( Inzolia ), Canaiolo Bianco ( Drupeggio ) Chardonnay. Greco. Grechetto di Orvieto (Grechetto, Grechetto Bianco, Pulcinculo), Incrocio Bruni 54. Malvasia Bianca di Candia. Malvasia Bianca Lunga. Malvasia Istarska (Malvasia Bianca, Malvasia del Chianti, Malvasia Istriana), Moscato or Moscato Bianco ( Muscat Blanc ) Müller-Thurgau, Pinot Bianco ( Pinot Blanc ), Pinot Grigio ( Pinot Gris ) Procanico (Variety Trebbiano Toscano), Riesling, Riesling Italico ( Riesling ) Roussanne, Sauvignon ( Sauvignon Blanc ) Sémillon. Traminer. Trebbiano Toscano. Verdello. Vermentino. Vernaccia di San Gimignano and Viognier,
Today, Tuscany is considered the center of Italian quality wine. The proportion of DOC and DOCG wines is around 45 percent. Here is also the phenomenon of as Super-Tuscans Wines have emerged that often challenge the narrow limits of DOC and some of them even surpass DOCG wines. These were, for example Galestro. Ornellaia and Sassicaia, Tuscany is also home to the famous Holy Wine Vin Santo, From the 1990s, the developed Maremma a landscape in the southwestern part of the region, to a new rapidly growing hope area. Many well-known Italian wineries invest here in new vineyards such as Antinori. Castello Banfi. Castello di Querceto. Frescobaldi and Ricasoli, The 6 partly very large IGT areas (or IGP - the land wines) are Alta Valle della Greve, Colli della Toscana Centrale, Costa Toscana, Monte Castelli, Toscana (Toscano) and Val di Magra. The 41 DOC and 11 DOCG zones are: