The Egyptian pharaoh Tut-Ench-Amun (around 1350 BC) died at the age of 17. The discovery of his almost intact tomb by the English archaeologist Sir Howard Carter (1873-1939) in 1922 was a world sensation. Among other things, a total of 36 amphorae with some wine remains found, of which 26 are labeled. One of the jugs bears the inscription: “Year 5, wine from the estate of Tut-Ench-Amun from the western river. Head of Kha'y Winegrowers ”. The "western river" most likely means the western arm of the Nile Delta (there is only one river in Egypt), where the best Egyptian wine region was at that time.
What "Year 5" means is not entirely clear. However, it is probably not the year of the king's reign, since another jug says "year 31" and this king died young. The "top winemaker Kha'y" is noted on six of the jugs. According to the inscriptions, a total of 23 jars date from the years 4, 5 and 9. In March 2004, the US scientists Maria Rosa Guasch-Jané (Egyptologist) and Rosa Lamuela-Raventós (chemist) examined by means of chromatography and spectrometry the dried-up red wine residues in a pitcher from the tomb of Pharaoh. The became the anthocyanins counting substance Malvidine-glucoside identified who only in red wine occurs. Later, remains of White wine found. This proves that in the old Egypt both types of wine were produced. So far, it was assumed that only red wine production was known at the time. See also under Ancient wines. Ancient grape varieties and drinking culture as well as the further keywords there.