Term for the lower part or rhizome of a grafted vine by a phylloxera resistant American vine comes. In the finishing is on this the top (noble rice) of European varieties of the species Vitis vinifera. The main reason for such grafting is the low susceptibility or resistance the roots of American game species against the underground stages of the phylloxera, or against those formed by the phylloxera infestation at the roots Nodositäten and tuberosities (Growths).
With regard to the suitability for viniculture, underlay grape varieties must also meet other breeding requirements. That is low susceptibility to both mildews, low tendency to chlorosis, great resistance to bacteria and virus, good wood structure and maturity, good adaptation (Compatibility) to diverse and difficult soil types such as dry soil or limestone soil, good absorption of the nutrient off the ground, as well as good ones Pfropfaffinität to the grafted grape variety without the promotion of Verrieselns, A good overgrowth of the two alien tissues at the grafting point and the harmonious coordination of the growth properties of the grafted variety with those of the rootstock usually ensure good growth and grape quality at a uniformly high level earnings of the vine.
The vast majority of the documents used in European countries are descendants of the three American wild-species crosses Vitis berlandieri x Vitis riparia, Vitis riparia x Vitis rupestris and Vitis berlandieri x Vitis rupestris. The groundbreaking research by the US botanist Thomas Volney played a key role in this Munson (1843-1913) at. A document approved in 1989 with complete phylloxera resistance was developed by Dr. Helmut Becker (1927-1990) from a cross Vitis riparia x Vitis cinerea created. He named it after the German oenologist Dr. Carl Börner (1880-1953). Not every type of pad is for the different soil types, Location conditions, noble varieties and growth requirements equally suitable.
For this reason, there are official recommendations as to which surface works best with which grape variety (top part) on which soil and brings the required results. The cuttings Most rootstocks are rooted without any problems, but the cuttings of the European grapevine Vitis vinifera are still best rooted. Therefore, the European part of a grafted vine cutting should not be buried in the ground. The document types with crossings from Vitis cinerea var. Helleri (better known under the old name Vitis berlandieri) or Vitis champinii experience shows that they root themselves poorly, so that the cuttings ends with the growth hormone auxin be brushed to induce rooting.
As well as Quality wine-grape varieties Supporting vines are also approved or classified by the state authorities (this can also vary depending on the wine-growing region). Some (latent) vine diseases (see also under Vine enemies ) can be widely distributed in the grafting and propagation of cuttings if, for example, plant material infected with viruses or bacteria (underlay or noble rice) is used. The effects are often only visible on older sticks. That is why the use of healthy, virus-free planting material is required by law in the EU. In this regard, evidence must be provided by a standardized procedure (see under Certification of vines ).
François is one of the best-known breeders of successful vines Baco, Helmut Becker, Carl Börner, Maxime Cornu, Georges Couderc, Gustave Foex, Victor Ganzin, Hermann Goethe, Rudolf Goethe, Franz Kober, Alexis Millardet, Thomas Volnay Munson, Christian Oberlin, Harold P. Olmo, Frederico Paulsen, Emerich Rathay, Franz Georges judge, Antonino Ruggeri, Otto Schneider-Orelli, as well as the family Teleki,
The breeding name with the first letter and breeding number is often included in the names of the rootstocks. In Austria and Germany are the most common Kober 5 BB, 125 AA and SO 4 used. The world's best-known rootstocks, some of which are only of historical importance:
110 R (Richter 110) - V. berlandieri x V. rupestris: Bred by Franz Richter in 1889. Very vigorous, positively delays maturity and the completion of vegetation in warm climates. High phylloxera resistance, low Nematode resistance, Moderate lime tolerance, medium tolerance towards drought stress, It is often used in regions with a Mediterranean climate and on drained slopes, where strong growth is slowed down by lack of water. Promotes strong foliage development.
1103 Paulsen (Paulsen 1103) - V. berlandieri Résséguier N 2 x V. rupestris du Lot: By Frederico Paulsen Bred in Sicily in 1896. Mainly distributed in the Mediterranean region (Algeria, Greece, southern France, Spain, Tunisia, southern Italy). Good drought tolerance, very good rooting, high phylloxera resistance, moderate Nematode resistance, Particularly suitable for deep, humid, clayey limestone soils.
125 AA - (Teleki 125 AA, Kober 125 AA) - V. berlandieri x V. riparia: By Franz Kober and Sigmund Teleki Bred in 1896. bred. Frequently used in Germany and Austria. Half-deep rooted, medium to strong growth. Good lime tolerance, especially for dense, poorly permeable to air and water, but not suitable for shallow, dry soils. Particularly suitable for Müller-Thurgau and Blauer Portugieser, but less so for flower-sensitive varieties such as Siegerrebe and Traminer.
140 Ruggeri - V. berlandieri x V. rupestris: Bred by Antonino Ruggeri in Sicily in 1897. Strong growth, therefore not suitable for fertile soils. low Nematode resistance, high phylloxera resistance, high lime tolerance, high tolerance to drought stress. Well suited for dry, lime-rich soils in a Mediterranean climate.
1613 C (Couderc 1613) - Solonis (V. riparia x V. longii) x Othello (V. labrusca, V. riparia, V. vinifera). By Georges Couderc Bred in 1881. Only partially resistant to phylloxera and chlorosis sensitive, but high Nematode resistance, Well suited for fertile sand and clay soils. It was very popular in California for its nematode strength until the phylloxera caused considerable damage. Not recommended today.
161-49 C (Couderc 161-49, Solférino) - V. riparia x V. berlandieri: By Georges Couderc Bred in 1888. High phylloxera resistance, high lime tolerance, good rooting, good graft affinity, medium vigor, low Nematode resistance, prone to leaf drought.
1616 C (Couderc 1616) - Solonis (V. riparia x V. rupestris x V. candicans) x V. riparia Gloire de Montpellier: By Georges Couderc Bred in 1881. Medium vigor, but good rooting. High phylloxera resistance with high Nematode resistance, Medium lime, but good salt tolerance. Well suited for saline coastal soils.
26 G (Geisenheim 26) - Trollinger x V. riparia: By Rudolf Goethe bred. Used mainly in Germany. Half-deep rooted, vigorous. Resistant to chlorosis, good for coulure trending varieties.
3309 C (Couderc 3309) - V. riparia x V. rupestris: By Georges Couderc Bred in 1881. Used in France, Austria, Germany, Switzerland, Russia, Romania and many other countries. Flat rooted, weak to medium-sized. High resistance of the roots to the phylloxera, resistant to coulure, Sensitive to drought stress. chlorosis and nematodes, Suitable for deep, nutrient-rich, moist and low-lime (medium lime tolerance) soils in a temperate climate.
333 EM (Tisserand) - Cabernet Sauvignon x V. berlandieri: By Gustave Foex (1844-1906) bred in Montpellier (EM = École de Montpellier) in 1883. Easy rooting, very good lime tolerance, good phylloxera resistance, resistant to drought.
41 B Mgt Chasselas x V. berlandieri: By Alexis Millardet 1882 based on Pierre's research Viala (1859-1936) bred. Weak vigor. Due to its high lime tolerance, it is particularly used in cognac and champagne. Sufficient phylloxera resistance, only moderately tolerant of drought.
420 A Mgt (Millardet et de Grasset 420A) - V. berlandieri x V. riparia: by Alexis Millardet and Marquis de Grasset bred in 1887. Good phylloxera resistance, moderate Nematode resistance, Medium tolerance to lime, sensitive to waterlogging, poor rooting. Suitable as growth brake or yield reduction.
5 BB (Teleki 5 BB) - V. berlandieri x V. riparia; see below Kober 5 BB and Teleki
5 C (Teleki 5C Geisenheim) - V. berlandieri x V. riparia: From Andor Teleki Selected in 1922. Widespread in Germany (most common variety) and Austria. Half deep rooting, strong growth, good rooting. Well suited for many floors, but not for extremely dry, cold and wet locations. Less lime-compatible than other documents and sensitive to chlorosis, Particularly suitable for Burgundy varieties, Riesling, Traminer and flower-sensitive varieties. An early completion of vegetation is favored.
8 B (Teleki 8B) - V. berlandieri x V. riparia: From Sigmund Teleki Bred in 1896. Frequently used in Germany and Austria. Half-deep rooted, medium-strong growth. Highly suitable for calcareous soils, but less suitable for flat, dry soils. Good resistance to chlorosis, Excellent for Riesling on calcareous, heavy soil and vines. But unsuitable for rich varieties.
99 R (Richter 99) - V. berlandieri x V. riparia: By Franz judge Bred in 1889. Very vigorous, unsuitable for cool regions due to late maturity. High phylloxera resistance, moderate Nematode resistance, For floors with bad water discharge unsuitable, medium lime tolerance, medium tolerance to drought stress.
AXR 1 (also ARG 1) - Aramon x V. rupestris: by Victor Ganzin Bred in 1879 and probably the most famous and notorious rootstock. See in detail below AxR 1,
Binova - Named after the winegrower Binstadt, who made this natural mutation who found SO 4 (see below) in a vineyard. Frequently used in Germany and Austria. Half deep rooted, vigorous. Suitable for many different soils, medium drought resistance, good lime tolerance. Resistant to chlorosis and particularly suitable for flower-sensitive varieties.
Börner (Börnerrebe) - Riparia 183 Geisenheim x Cinerea Arnold: By Carl Börner bred and by Helmut Becker selected. Used in Germany and Austria. Half-deep rooted, vigorous, well drought-tolerant. Well suited for medium to dry, but not too chalky soils, extremely chloroseanfällig at higher limescale levels. Absolute phylloxera resistance without training Nodositäten,
Dog Ridge - Seedling of V. champinii: By Thomas V. Munson selected in 1900. Very strong vigor, resistant to Pierce Disease and nematodes, moderately resistant to phylloxera. Common in the southern United States.
Fercal - Berlandieri x Richter 31: Was born in 1978 on INRA bred in Bordeaux by R. Pouget and M. Ottenwalter especially for lime-rich soils. Moderately vigorous, grafting possible. Moderate phylloxera resistance, very resistant to chlorosis, also suitable for pure limestone soils, good resistance to drought stress,
Harmony - 1613 Couderc OP x Dog Ridge operating room : Was selected from a seedling found around 1849 in Hartford / Connecticut in California in 1967. Moderate to strong vigor. Good root rot resistance, but low phylloxera resistance.
Kober 5 BB (5 BB, Teleki 5 BB) - V. berlandieri x V. riparia; look there.
Riparia Gloire de Montpellier (RGM) - V. riparia selection: one of the oldest by Pierre around 1860 in Montpellier Viala and R. Michel bred French documents. Low vigor and thus reduced yield, special phylloxera resistance, low tolerance towards dryness, high susceptibility to chlorosis and therefore not suitable for limestone soils. Particularly suitable for Cabernet Sauvignon and Sauvignon Blanc.
Schwarzmann - V. riparia x V. rupestris: Bred by Schwarzmann in 1891. Strong vigor, good rooting, rather low tolerance to lime. Suitable for deep, damp, lime-poor soils. High resistance to phylloxera,
SO 4 (Selection Oppenheim de Teleki No. 4) - V. berlandieri x V. riparia: It was established at the beginning of the 20th century State wine-growing domain Oppenheim (Rheinhessen) selected, one from Sigmund Teleki (1854-1910) developed crossing played a role. It is widely used in Germany, Austria and France. The underlay has an excellent phylloxera and a medium one Nematode resistance, Half-deep rooted, medium vigor, medium drought tolerance, good Chlorosefestigkeit, Suitable for many floors that are not prone to dryness. This is especially true for strong, humose Calcareous soils. Early maturity favors wood maturity and its frost resistance. A mutation of SO 4 is Binova (see above).
All tools, work and measures in the vineyard during the growth cycle can be found at Weingarten Care, Complete lists of the numerous cellar techniques, as well as a list of wine, sparkling wine and distillate types regulated by wine law are under the keyword winemaking contain. There is extensive wine law information under the keyword wine law,
Graphics: taken from Bauer / Regner / Schildberger, viticulture,
ISBN: 978-3-70402284-4, Cadmos Verlag GmbH