Designation for the lower part or rhizome of a grafted vine which is of a rainbow resistant American vine comes. In the finishing On top of this is the top (Edelreis) of European varieties of the species Vitis vinifera grafted. The main reason for such grafting is the low susceptibility or resistance the roots of American wild species against the underground stages of the phylloxera, or against the formed by the phylloxera attack on the roots Nodositäten and tuberosities (Growths). Regarding vinification suitability Unterlagsrebsorten must also meet other breeding requirements.
That's low susceptibility to both mildews, low inclination too chlorosis, great resistance capability against bacteria and virus, good wood structure and wood maturity, good adaptation (Compatibility) to diverse and difficult soil types such as dry soil or calcareous soil, good absorption of the nutrient from the ground, as well as good Pfropfaffinität to the grafted grape variety without the promotion of Verrieselns, A good coalescence of the two alien tissues at the grafting point and the harmonious matching of the growth characteristics of the grafted grape variety with those of the Untersort ensure a good instinctuality and grape quality with consistently high earnings of the vine.
The overwhelming majority of the documents used in European countries are descendants of the three American wild species crosses Vitis berlandieri x Vitis riparia, Vitis riparia x Vitis rupestris and Vitis berlandieri x Vitis rupestris. Decisive factors contributed to the pioneering research of the US botanist Thomas Volney Munson (1843-1913) at. A 1989 certified base with complete phylloxera resistance was provided by Dr. med. Helmut Becker (1927-1990) from a crossing Vitis riparia x Vitis cinerea created. He named her after the German oenologist dr. Carl Börner (1880-1953). Not every rootstock is for the different ones soil types, Site conditions, varieties and growth requirements are equally suitable.
Therefore, there are official recommendations, which base with which grape variety (top) on which soil harmonizes best and brings the required results. The cuttings Most of the rootstock rooted without any problem, but the rooting of the European vine Vitis vinifera is still the best. Therefore, the European portion of a grafted vine cuttings should not be buried in the ground. The varieties with crossings of Vitis cinerea var. Helleri (known under the old name Vitis berlandieri) or Vitis champinii According to experience, they are badly rooted, leaving the inguinal ends with the growth hormone auxin coated to induce rooting.
As well as Quality wine-grape varieties underlaid vines are also approved or classified by the provincial authorities (this can also be different for the wine-growing region). Some (latent) vine diseases (see also Vine enemies ) can be extensively propagated in grafting and cuttings propagation using, for example, plant or virgin rice infected with virus or bacteria. The effects are often only visible on older sticks. Therefore, the use of as healthy as possible, virus-free planting material in the EU is required by law. In this regard, proof must be provided by a standardized procedure (see Certification of vines ).
Well-known breeders are François Baco, Helmut Becker Carl Börner, Maxime Cornu, Georges Couderc, Gustave Foex, Victor Ganzin, Hermann Goethe, Rudolf Goethe, Franz Kober, Alexis Millardet, Thomas Volnay Munson, Christian Oberlin, Harold P. Olmo Frederico Paulsen, Emerich Rathay, Franz Georges judge, Antonino Ruggeri, Otto Schneider-Orelli, as well as the family Teleki, Breeder names are often included with initial letters and numbers. In Austria and Germany are most common Kober 5 BB, 125 AA and SO 4 used. The most well-known underlays worldwide, of which some have only historical significance:
110 R (Judges 110) - V. berlandieri x V. rupestris: Bred by Franz Richter in 1889. Very vigorous, delays in warm climates positive the maturity and the vegetation conclusion. High phylloxera resistance, low Nematode resistance, Moderate lime compatibility, medium tolerance to drought stress, It is often used in regions with a Mediterranean climate and on dehydrated slopes, where strong growth is slowed down by a lack of water. Promotes strong foliage development.
1103 Paulsen (Paulsen 1103) - V. berlandieri Résséguier N 2 x V. rupestris du Lot: By Frederico Paulsen Bred in Sicily in 1896. Especially in the Mediterranean (Algeria, Greece, southern France, Spain, Tunisia, southern Italy) spread. Good tolerance to dryness, very good rooting, high phylloxera resistance, moderate Nematode resistance, Especially suitable for deep, humid, clayey limestone soils.
125 AA - (Teleki 125 AA, Kober 125 AA) - V berlandieri x V. riparia: By Franz Kober and Sigmund Teleki Bred in 1896. bred. Frequently used in Germany and Austria. Semi-deep rooted, medium to vigorous. Good lime compatibility, especially for dense, less permeable to air and water, but not suitable for shallow, dry soils. Is particularly suitable for Müller-Thurgau and Blauer Portugieser, but less for flowering varieties such as Siegerrebe and Traminer.
140 Ruggeri - V. berlandieri x V. rupestris: bred by Antonino Ruggeri in 1897 in Sicily. Strong-growing, therefore not suitable for fertile soils. low Nematode resistance, high phylloxera resistance, high lime tolerance, high tolerance to drought stress. Well suited for dry, calcareous soils in a Mediterranean climate.
1613 C (Couderc 1613) - Solonis (V. riparia x V. longii) x Othello (V. labrusca, V. riparia, V. vinifera). From Georges Couderc Bred in 1881. Only partially resistant to phylloxera and chlorosis sensitive, but high Nematode resistance, Good for fertile sandy and loamy soil. In California, she was very popular because of the nematode resistance, until the phylloxera caused considerable damage. No longer recommended today.
161-49 C (Couderc 161-49, Solférino) - V. riparia x V. berlandieri: By Georges Couderc Bred in 1888. High phylloxera resistance, high tolerance to lime, good rooting, good graft affinity, medium vigor, low Nematode resistance, prone to leaf drought.
1616 C (Couderc 1616) - Solonis (V. riparia x V. rupestris x V. candicans) x V. riparia Gloire de Montpellier: By Georges Couderc Bred in 1881. Medium vigor, but good rooting. High phylloxera resistance with high Nematode resistance, Medium lime, but good salt compatibility. Well suited for salty coastal soils.
26 G (Geisenheim 26) - Trollinger x V. riparia: By Rudolf Goethe bred. Especially used in Germany. Half-deep-rooted, strong-growing. Resistant to chlorosis, good for to coulure Tending varieties.
3309 C (Couderc 3309) - V. riparia x V. rupestris: By Georges Couderc Bred in 1881. Used in France, Austria, Germany, Switzerland, Russia, Romania and many other countries. Roots flat, weak to medium. High resistance of the roots against phylloxera, resistant to coulure, Sensitive to drought stress. chlorosis and nematodes, For deep, nutrient-rich, moist and low-lime (medium lime compatibility) soils suitable in a temperate climate.
333 EM (Tisserand) - Cabernet Sauvignon x V. berlandieri: From Gustave Foex (1844-1906) in Montpellier (EM = École de Montpellier) 1883 bred. Slight rooting, very good calcium tolerance, good phylloxera resistance, resistant to dryness.
41 B Mgt Chasselas x V. berlandieri: By Alexis Millardet 1882 based on the investigations by Pierre Viala (1859-1936) bred. Weak growth power. High calcium tolerance, especially used in Cognac and Champagne. Sufficient phylloxera resistance, only moderately tolerant to drought.
420 A Mgt (Millardet et de Grasset 420A) - V berlandieri x V. riparia: by Alexis Millardet and Marquis de Grasset 1887 bred. Good phylloxera resistance, moderate Nematode resistance, Medium lime compatibility, sensitive to waterlogging, bad rooting. Suitable as a growth brake or yield reduction.
5BB (Teleki 5 BB) - V. berlandieri x V. riparia; see below Kober 5 BB and Teleki
5 C (Teleki 5C Geisenheim) - V. berlandieri x V. riparia: By Andor Teleki 1922 selected. In Germany (most common variety) and Austria widespread. Half-deep-rooted, strong-growing, good rooting. Suitable for many soils but not for extremely dry, cold and wet locations. Less calcareous than other documents and sensitive to chlorosis, Particularly suitable for Burgundy varieties, Riesling, Traminer and flowering varieties. An early vegetation conclusion is favored.
8 B (Teleki 8B) - V. berlandieri x V. riparia: From Sigmund Teleki Bred in 1896. Frequently used in Germany and Austria. Semi-deep rooted, medium strong. Highly suitable for calcareous, but less suitable for flat, dry soils. Well resistant to chlorosis, Excellent for Riesling on calcareous, heavy soil and Siegerrebe. For rich varieties but unsuitable.
99 R (Richter 99) - V berlandieri x V. riparia: By Franz judge Bred in 1889. Highly vigorous, unsuitable for cool regions due to late maturity. High phylloxera resistance, moderate Nematode resistance, For floors with bad water discharge unsuitable, medium lime compatibility, average tolerance to drought stress.
AXR 1 (also ARG 1) - Aramon x V. rupestris: by Victor Ganzin Bred in 1879 and probably the most famous and notorious rootstock. See in detail below AxR 1,
Binova - Named after the wine grower Binstadt, this natural mutation the SO 4 (see below) found in a vineyard. Frequently used in Germany and Austria. Semi-deep rooted, strong. Suitable for many different soils, medium dry resistance, good lime compatibility. Resistant to chlorosis and especially suitable for flowering-sensitive varieties.
Börner (Börnerrebe) - Riparia 183 Geisenheim x Cinerea Arnold: By Carl Börner bred and by Helmut Becker selected. Used in Germany and Austria. Semi-deep rooted, strong, well drought-tolerant. Good for medium to dry, but not too calcareous soils suitable, extremely chloroseanfällig at higher lime contents. Absolute phylloxera resistance without training of Nodositäten,
Dog Ridge - Seedling of V. champinii: By Thomas V. Munson selected in 1900. Very strong growth, resistant to Pierce Disease and nematodes, moderately resistant to phylloxera. Spread in the south of the USA.
Fercal - Berlandieri x Judge 31: Was born in 1978 on INRA in Bordeaux by R. Pouget and M. Ottenwälter specially bred for calcareous soils. Moderately vigorous, easy to graft. Moderate phylloxera resistance, very resistant to chlorosis, also suitable for pure lime soils, good resistance to drought stress,
Harmony - 1613 Couderc OP x Dog Ridge operating room : Was selected from a seedling found around 1849 in Hartford / Connecticut in 1967 in California. Moderate to strong growth. Good resistance to root rot but low phylloxera resistance.
Kober 5 BB (5 BB, Teleki 5 BB) - V. berlandieri x V. riparia; look there.
Riparia Gloire de Montpellier (RGM) - V. riparia Selection: One of the oldest around 1860 in Montpellier of Pierre Viala and R. Michel bred French documents. Low vigor and thus yield reduction, special phylloxera resistance, low tolerance to dryness, high vulnerability to chlorosis and therefore not suitable for lime soils. Especially suitable for Cabernet Sauvignon and Sauvignon Blanc.
Schwarzmann - V. riparia x V. rupestris: bred by Schwarzmann in 1891. Strong vigor, good rooting, rather low liming tolerance. Suitable for deep, moist, lime-poor soils. High resistance against phylloxera,
SO 4 (Selection Oppenheim de Teleki No. 4) - V berlandieri x V. riparia: It was written at the beginning of the 20th century on the State Winegrowing Domain Oppenheim (Rheinhessen) selected, whereby a 1896 of Sigmund Teleki (1854-1910) developed intersection played a role. It is widely used in Germany, Austria and France. The pad has an excellent phylloxera and a medium Nematode resistance, Semi-deep rooted, medium vigor, medium drought tolerance, good Chlorosefestigkeit, Suitable for many non-drought soils. This is especially true for strong, humose Calcareous soils. By early maturity wood maturity and its frost resistance are favored. One mutation of SO 4 is Binova (see above).
Graphics: taken from Bauer / Regner / Schildberger, viticulture,
ISBN: 978-3-70402284-4, Cadmos Verlag GmbH