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self-rooted (GB)
a piedo franco (I)

Designation (also direct carrier, Self carrier, root vine) for one Rebstock if lower (rhizome) and upper part ( scion ) come from the same plant. That means none finishing is done. Refined vines are used to 90% worldwide, because only with these one resistance against the phylloxera is guaranteed. However, there are individual countries, areas and wineries with root-proof vineyards. Examples are the Greek island Santorini. Cyprus, large areas in Chile and the Portuguese area Colares, Requirements include a special one soil type or high vineyards like in Italian aosta Valley in the area Blanc de Morgex and de La Salle, In many other countries, such as in Germany. Austria and the Switzerland, there are individual wineries that can use at least partly root-correct vines due to favorable conditions. See also under Weingarten Care,

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