On Friday, October 12, 1492, an unknown sailor sighted the country at 2 a.m. from the Spanish caravel "Pinta". It was the Bahamas island of Guanahani, the then name in the native language (as it is called today), which Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) called San Salvador. To date, this is considered the day of the discovery of America or the New world, But already 500 years before Columbus someone else had entered the American continent. Around the year 1000, the Icelandic Viking Leif Eriksson (son of Greenland explorer Erik the Red) drove south from Greenland and reached the American coast. He called the area "Vinland". It is not clearly certain whether the name Vinland actually means "wine country", it could also have meant "pasture" or "meadow". There have been many attempts to accurately identify the location, one version naming the island of Manhattan in the place of new York,
The American historian Frederick J. Pohl (1889-1991) wrote in his book "The lost discovery" that - a little further north - the Bay of Massachusetts acted in the place of the city of Boston. According to a written report - the Grenlinga saga (saga of the Greenlanders) - Leif Eriksson found gentle hills, numerous game, salmon, wild wheat and in the woods in abundance Wild vines with huge berries hanging from the trees. One team member left some grapes longer until they started to ferment and was found drunk. Leif's brother-in-law Thorfinn Karlsefni then tried to establish a settlement, but due to fierce resistance from the natives, which resembled Indians or Eskimos, colonization had to be abandoned after a few years.
When the first colonists landed on the east coast of America in the late 16th century, they made the same discovery as Eriksson. Grapes overgrown with huge fruits in the woods. But mostly from Wild vines despite many attempts, no tasty wine can be produced. Because American vines in particular of the species Vitis labrusca bring a wine with an unpleasant Foxton or penetrating strawberry aroma. So they tried very soon along the entire Atlantic coast of Massachusetts up in the north Florida deep in the south with grape varieties imported from Europe. But these soon died after planting. The American soil was literally soaked with the phylloxera and in addition the unknown in Europe mildew to create other diseases and extreme climatic conditions. Many of these were against these plagues American vines through millions of years of adaptation resistant, but the Europeans Vines delivered defenseless. There have been countless unsuccessful efforts to solve the problems. The causes were not recognized for over 200 years; they were only clarified by the phylloxera and mildew introduced to Europe and their control in the last third of the 19th century.
The later U.S. Presidents George Washington (1732-1799) and Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) were great promoters of wine culture. Jefferson was convinced that the only way to keep the Americans away from stronger alcoholic beverages such as wine culture and quantity of wine whiskey to consume. This was supported by a law in 1791, all alcoholic beverages were subject to an excise tax and the only exception was wine made in America. He also led in at his Monticello winery Virginia decades of trials with European and American vines. His dream of making the United States a top wine-growing nation was never fulfilled during his life.
From the beginning of the 19th century, a virtue was finally made out of necessity and attempts were made to accept the peculiarity of American grape varieties. They grew all over the country hybrids or also tried to produce wine from the existing American varieties. Already in 1562 French Huguenots near Jacksonville in Florida Vineyards. They used a wild ancestor of the white variety still planted today Scuppernong which they gradually cultivated and also made wine from. Ephraim Wales Bull (1806-1895) added in 1843 Concord in the state Massachusetts Seeds of a wild vine of the species Vitis labrusca, selected a red variety and named it after the place. This too is still in great use today - especially in the northeast.
In 1798 it was located in Jessamine County Kentucky by immigrant Swiss winemaker Jean Jacques Dufour (1763-1827) created a vineyard and among other things the historical variety Alexander planted. This winery is considered to be America's first commercial wine company. He later followed Indiana and also founded a winery on the Ohio River - he is also one of the most important American wine-growing pioneers thanks to a wine book he wrote. Land surveyor John made a big hit Adlum (1759-1836), who lived in Georgetown in the young state in 1820 Ohio one out North Carolina originating variety cultivated on a larger scale. He first called it Tokay and then after a river in North Carolina Catawba, In 1823 he sent Thomas Jefferson a bottle of wine made from it.
The second birthplace of American commercial viticulture is Cincinnati, Ohio, where the lawyer Nicholas Longworth (1783-1863) initially tried unsuccessfully to plant European vines on the Ohio River in 1823. Then he received cuttings from Adlum Catawba in 1825 and thus produced the first US sparkling wine "Sparkling Catawba". The success was also due to the fact that the Foxton does not come into its own in a sparkling wine. The Ohio was called the "Rhine of America" at the time and the sparkling wine quickly became famous and Longworth rich. But the American Civil War (1861-1865), vine diseases and Longworth's death ended these first successes. But a cornerstone was laid for North American viticulture.
The American wine miracle on a large scale only started in California, In 1769 the Franciscan monk had it here Junipero Serra (1713-1784) when establishing the "San Diego" mission the first vineyard with the European Mission grape variety ( Listán Prieto ) created - it was the first successful Vitis vinifera in America. Frenchman Jean-Louis is the first commercial California winemaker Vignes (1780-1862), who imported European grape varieties from 1833. The Austro-Hungarian Agoston then gave a decisive impetus to California's supremacy Haraszthy (1812-1869) in the 1860s, adding tens of thousands of Europeans cuttings Imported. But through that prohibition (1920-1933) there was a total decline in wine culture. Many businesses perished, many vineyards were cleared and infrastructure and knowledge were largely lost. America only slowly recovered from this after a generation.
From 1939 the wine-growing pioneer and writer Philip headed wagner (1904-1996) from his Boordy Vineyards in Maryland a new direction in American viticulture. He imported a large number of French hybrids and documents from France (from Baco. Seibel and Seyve Villard ) which subsequently spread to the states on the entire east coast. In the middle of the 20th century, von developed California from the American viticulture anew. As a milestone and turning point in the reputation of American viticulture, the result of the legendary is often Paris Wine Tasting called in 1976. It was about a "wine country battle" between France and California. Of the approximately 2,200 wineries in the United States, over 1,100 are located in California, and today around 90% of the United States' wine is produced here. Other states like Oregon but catch up quickly.
Wine is produced in all 50 U.S. states today, even in Alaska (where there are no vineyards) and Hawaii. The last state to follow in 2002 was North Dakota with two factories. However, the scope is very different, basically there is more viticulture in the west than in the east and more in the north than in the south. Wine is considered a luxury rather than an everyday product in the United States. As an aftermath of prohibition, wine is still considered a drug in many U.S. states. After prohibition it became Three-tier system introduced. This stipulates that producers, wholesalers and retailers must be completely separate. In 1983, the authority responsible at the time declared BATF (today as successor TTB ) the appellation system AVA (American Viticultural Area) for generally applicable. There are a total of 189 AVA areas, including 107 in California alone.
In 2012, the vineyard area totaled 412,000 hectares, of which only 230,000 were planted with wine varieties (55%) for wine production. 21.7 million hectoliters of wine were obtained. The five most successful US wine brands and producers are identified by the acronym GAMIT designated. In many states there are also large quantities fruit wine (Apples, berries etc.), table grapes. grape juice and grape jelly (jam). The Blend 2010 (Statistics Kym Anderson ):
|vine||colour||Synonyms or name in the USA||hectare|
|Durif||red||Petite Sirah, Petite Syrah||2865|
|Garnacha Tinta||red||Grenache Noir||2666|
|Muscat d'Alexandrie||White||Muscat of Alexandria||1285|
|Gewurztraminer / Traminer||White||Gewurztraminer||1144|
|Muscat Blanc / muscatel||White||-||733|
|Malvasia Bianca di Piemonte||White||Malvasia Bianca||554|
|Monbadon||White||Burger, Elbling Burger, Elbling (wrong)||498|
|Alicante Henri Bouschet||red||-||431|
Influential US wine authors or wine critic are Eric Asimov, Antonio Galloni, Steve Heimoff, James arbor, Peter Liem, Robert M. Parker, Frank J. Prial, David Schildknecht, Frank Schoonmaker, Mark Squires, James Suckling, Stephen Dancer and Gary vaynerchuk, You write for various wine magazines or wine guide, for example International Wine Review. Wine Advocate. Wine enthusiast. Wine Spectator and Wine & Spirits,
In the representational wine Glossary the following 41 states are included as keywords: Alaska. Arizona. Arkansas. Colorado. Connecticut. Florida. Georgia. Hawaii. Idaho. Illinois. Indiana. Iowa. California. Kentucky. Louisiana. Maryland. Massachusetts. Michigan. Minnesota. Mississippi. Missouri. Montana. Nevada. New Jersey. New Mexico. new York. North Carolina. Ohio. Oklahoma. Oregon. Pennsylvania. Rhode Island. South Carolina. Tennessee. Texas. Utah. Vermont. Virginia. Washington. West Virginia and Wisconsin,