Next climate and Grape variety one of the most important factors influencing wine quality. The different soil types have changed over millions of years due to physical and chemical weathering of rocks as well Humification organic substances formed. In physical weathering, natural forces such as wind, water, heat, cold and ice initially cause the rock formations to be mechanically crushed into rubble and gravel. Strong temperature opposites, friction and shear forces as well as the frost blast from frozen water in rock fissures play an important role. Chemical weathering processes such as oxidation, Solution processes and acid attacks attack the mineral lattice structure of the rocks. Easily water-soluble minerals such as carbonates and Sulfates first dissolved, the rock slowly disintegrates into grus, sand, silt or clay. Every rock, even the hardest granite or quartz, will eventually crumble to dust, even if it takes millions of years.
Organic substances from plant residues, animal residues from worms, insects and small animals of all kinds, as well as dead ones Microorganisms such as Seaweed, bacteria and Mushrooms are in humus converted. The essential for plant growth Nitrogen compounds (Nitrate, ammonium) as well as others nutrient released. Fungi and bacteria play the main role in the decomposition of organic residues such as wood, leaves, roots or animal corpses. Insects such as floor mites are important because of their crushing feeding activities. Earthworms play a crucial role in soil loosening, mixing and the formation of stable clay-humus complexes, which are formed in the earthworm intestine and excreted as faeces. These contribute to the structural stability of the soil and can bind easily water-soluble nutrients and thus make them available to the plants for longer.
Each floor consists of floor horizons (soil layers) with special properties. They are almost always horizontal and can be seen in the soil profile (vertical section of the soil in an excavation). The sequence is the essential criterion for determining the soil type. From top to bottom, a soil is divided into an organic soil horizon or HLO horizon (peat from plant residues, litter) and a three-part mineral horizon. These are A-horizon (mineral topsoil with a lively, humus-rich layer), B-horizon (mineral subsoil with a layer of humus-poor with fine soil already chemically weathered to sand, silt or clay) and C-horizon (little changed starting rock with physical weathering). Deep mechanical tillage mixes horizons. Depending on the climate and Erosion the A or B horizon may also be missing or only marginal.
In a vineyard, the horizons through tillage ( Infiltration ) have usually already been mixed. Stone subsoil, initial soil, tillage, fertilization such as Water balance with a balance between the Water storage assets and the Water drainage shape alongside the local climate (Microclimate or layered climate) the location vineyard and give each vineyard location the typical and unmistakable character of the origin. The duration of the Vegetation cycle, the orientation of the exposition (Solar radiation) and the local climate on the slope, the existing soil conditions, the Humus- and lime content and the Water supply affect the choice of the most appropriate Grape varieties.
The well-known geologist and wine book author James E. Wilson aptly writes in his book "Terroir - Keys to Wine": "The soil is the soul of the vine" . However, the direct connection of rock, grape variety and character of the wine today is often more rooted due to the uniform use documents with strong mineral fertilization and the use of new wine-growing cellar methods are only marginally pronounced. In the formerly sparingly and mostly organically fertilized vineyards with their old, true to root planted and often deeply rooted vines, this relationship certainly came into its own much more.
The French, in particular, recognized the importance of the interplay of climate-rock-soil-location-microclimate and grape variety very early on and in the creation of the term Terroir so to speak elevated to their philosophy. The terroir with the appropriate grape varieties is used in the classification of the wine-growing regions as Appellation d'Origine Protégée (AOP) legally defined. This is a clear difference to the philosophy in Germany and Austria, for example, where great importance (not too much) is attached to the grape variety and the grape variety and the grape variety wines obtained from it, rather than the location.
Regarding the quality of the wine, it can be of great advantage if the Vines their roots have to drill as deep as possible into the ground due to stony ground. Because of the ability of soils Ion exchanger To act, i.e. to replace nutrient salts in the soil solution with the protons (H +) and anions (OH-) released by the plant, the supply of the roots with essential Nutrients and Trace elements made possible at all. The minerals absorbed can be found in the Total extract of a wine again. The vine needs around twenty essential trace elements and the main nutrients to thrive. As a permanent crop, it is less dependent on fertile soils than annual crops. There are often locations with very poor soils on which high-quality wines grow. However, this does not mean that the less nutrients are available in the soil, the better the wine quality.
A lack of nitrogen and amino acids in the must Yeast in the fermentation hinder and Fermentation error cause. Among other things, this can be due to the wine error UTA (atypical age tone). Rather, the harmonious composition of the nutrients in the soil, the availability of water and nutrients as well as the state of aggregation and the rootability are of importance for the suitability of a soil for viticulture. Through plant or soil tests using EUF method a lack of nutrients can be recognized and possibly caused by fertilization be resolved. A comprehensive classification or determination of the soil quality for agricultural use in general or specifically for viticulture is carried out using Rating.
With lime-rich soils pH values over 8 makes the high difficult Calcium content in the ground the absorption of other double positively charged ions such as Nitrogen compounds, magnesium or the trace elements boron, iron, manganese or zinc so that lime chlorosis or other physiological deficiency symptoms can occur, even with normally sufficient nutrient levels in the soil. Especially at the beginning of the growth cycle, the nitrogen content (in the form of nitrate and ammonium) in the soil should be sufficient. The basic rule is that alkaline (alkaline) soils with a high pH value above 8 (e.g. lime, chalk and marl soils with mostly a high proportion of calcium and magnesium) produce wines with a higher acidity, while acidic soils with a low pH value less than 6 to 4 (for example granite, quartz sand) cause wines with lower acidity. Experiments with increased amounts of potassium have shown that vines react with an increased malic acid production. To compensate for the increased influx of positive potassium ions, the plant produces negatively charged acid anions (malic acid). However, irrespective of the age or maturity-related acid values, there are of course other causes for the acidity in the wine.
A good Weingarten soil should be lean, medium to deep, well aerated, water-permeable and not compacted, rich but not too fat, not too humus rich but rich in mineral components. The best locations are so-called Slopes, because this creates an almost vertical angle of incidence for the sun's rays in late summer, so that the maximum amount of radiation can be used. The best location on the slope is the calm, concave middle (belly, navel, kidney), where the highest Temperature sums can be reached and the soil is usually well drained. Soil color also plays an important role, because dark soils absorb the heat of the sun more quickly and comprehensively, while light soils reflect light, so that such soils do not heat up as quickly and as strongly. The suitability of an area for viticulture is called Winegrowing that can be determined using a criteria catalog.
Alberese: Italian name for weathered sandstone with a high proportion of calcium carbonate (limestone) in Tuscany, which predominates in the central and southern part of the Chianti area.
Alluvium / Alluvion (alluvial soil ): Alluvial sediment washed up and deposited by water (loose materials). Alluvium is also another name for the Holocene, the youngest geological age that has lasted since the end of the last ice age some 10,000 years ago. Alluvial soils are mostly fine-grained, very fertile soil types that arise in the flood and mouth area of rivers. They consist of soil particles that have been washed up and sedimented when the water soothes.
Depending on the sinking rate of the soil particles carried in the water and the flow rate of the flood, they consist of clayey mud, silt, sand or in the immediate bank area with high flow rates and strong erosion dynamics of gravel and pebbles. Despite the predominantly rocky and sandy nature, such as in French Médoc, these soils are very suitable for viticulture. The secret of the locations there are the clay lenses deposited in various floods and covered with sand and gravel inside the alluvial gravel terraces, which can store water. Such layers of clay are literally searched for by the vine roots.
Amphibolite: Mostly black over gray to dark green rock, which is the result of the metamorphic conversion of basalt (see below) under high pressure and temperature conditions. It consists of up to 50% representatives of the amphibole group, such as hornblende (see below) or Tschermakit, and up to 40% from other minerals such as garnet and quartz, as well as ores such as magnetite and pyrite.
Aeolian: named after the Greek wind god Aeolus, phenomena caused by the wind. Aeolian transport triggers fine material such as loess, silt (silt) or clay from the source material, such as loose rock, and transports it over longer distances by the wind. Aeolian weathering refers to the removal of rock by sand grains, fine gravel, etc., which are moved by the wind, with the effect of a sandblaster. This creates an Aeolian weathering soil.
Arkose: The geological term describes a pink to reddish, coarse-grained sandstone with a high proportion of feldspar, which occurs mainly in dry, arid areas. It leads to the coarser granite rocks.
Alluvial soils: Soils created from river deposits that are periodically flooded. Such come in, for example Danube-, Moselle- and Rheinauen in front. When they are no longer flooded, they develop into brown earth and para brown earth. These soils are mostly nutrient-rich, biologically active and fertile.
Basalt: basic effusion rock (cooled magma) consisting of feldspar, hornblende, olivine and magnetite. It contains a lot of lime and soda and is rich in minerals. The hard, slowly weathering rock forms good soils and produces wines with an appealing acidity.
Pumice (pumice stone, pumice stuff): The porous, glassy volcanic rock is created by gas-rich volcanic eruptions, in which the lava is foamed by water vapor and carbon dioxide. It does not differ chemically from other lava, but is much lighter due to the trapped air. The color varies from black and with increasing air content to gray to white. The term Bimstuff refers to the grain size, at least 75% must consist of volcanic ash. Pumice soils have a good water storage capacity and are very suitable for viticulture. You can find them throughout the Greek island Santorini that arose from a volcanic explosion. The obsidian is similar to pumice, but contains much less carbon dioxide. See also under Canava and down by volcanic rock.
Blue slate : See below for slate.
Boulbènes: name used in Bordeaux for a very fine, siliceous floor. For example, it comes on the plateau of the area Entre-deux-Mers in front.
Brown earth: These ABC soils develop primarily over low-lime but base-rich rocks such as granite, gneiss, greywacke, clay slate and clayey sandstone. It was formed under humid climatic conditions from humus-rich topsoils on low-limestone silicate rock (Ranker - see further below) with foliage and mixed forest stocking. The brown color in the B horizon is caused by iron oxides, which are formed during the chemical weathering of iron-containing silicates. The acids released by the tree roots contributed greatly to the deep weathering of the B horizon. The lime content, stone content and water balance of brown earth can differ greatly. Depending on the nature, this can be an excellent soil for viticulture.
Para brown earth differs from brown earth in that clay particles have been moved from the upper to the lower layers. This is a process that occurs when soil is acidified. Lime solution removes cemented lime structures so that the released clay particles are washed away with the leachate into deeper layers of the soil. Para brown earths mostly originated from Pararendzinen. Para brown and brown soils are the most common soils in humid Europe. Clay and loess parabra brown earths are among the most fertile soils.
Breccia : conglomerate with angular components (see below).
Buntsandstein : Brightly colored, mostly red sandstone with partly clayey flooding. The Buntsandstein was created from the rubble from the mountains of ancient times. It was deposited in a dry semi-desert climate in a large basin (Germanic basin) in the middle of today's Europe and later overlaid by sedimentary rocks such as the Jurassic limestone or floss.
Iron: See below Terra Rossa and further down at Rotliegendes.
Feldspar: Complex silicate compounds of white and reddish minerals, which make up about 60% of the composition of the earth's crust. These contain iron, potassium, calcium and sodium. There are three main groups: potassium feldspar (Adular, Sanidin), soda lime feldspar (Albit, Periklin, Anorthit) and Mikrolin. Weathering creates base-rich clay minerals that can release mineral-bound ions as nutrients to the vine. Feldspar is one of the three main components of granite and gneiss - see below.
Flint: The gray to black colored rock (flint, silex) of the finely crystalline quartz type chalcedony with splintery-shell-shaped break has a white, porous surface structure. It comes from siliceous marine life (diatoms, radiolaria = sea plankton - see also under Diatomaceous earth ). This soil gives typical wines with a taste of Flint like the French one Pouilly-Fumé.
fluviatil: Removed or deposited by running water - the result is an Alluvion or Alluvium soil (alluvial soil); see above.
Flysch: Low-fossil sandstones as well as marl and clay slate, which arose from the rubble on the edge of a mountain. In the narrower sense, these are the rocks from the time when the Alps came into being, which can be found in the northern Alps from the Austrian Vienna Woods to Western Switzerland. The slippery rock creates a landscape characterized by gentle, round hills. The...