Plant variety protection for plants and therefore also varieties protects intellectual property and the enormous development costs for plant breeding against unjustified imitation. It is an intellectual property right or intellectual monopoly right and not a patent. In 1961, by protecting plant varieties UPOV based in Geneva (Switzerland). This regulates mutual recognition and protection under the rule of law in the 70 member states and their institutions. There are national plant variety protection authorities in all countries, where there are lists of varieties of the protected varieties. First, variety protection is applied for and, if the decision is positive, entry in the country-specific variety lists.
The country-specific regulations for industrial property rights for plant varieties are not harmonized at EU level, which is why the different regulations of the Member States apply. But it was in accordance EU Regulation In 1994 a Community regulation was introduced, which exists in parallel with the national regulations, but which permits the granting of industrial property rights applicable throughout the Community in all member states. The Plant Variety Protection Office is responsible for Community plant variety protection within the EU CPVO (Community Plant Variety Office) in Angers (France).
Varieties of all botanical genera and species, but also can be subject hybrids (interspecific crossings). It can be a new breed (Cross breeding at least two varieties) or to discover a natural one mutation or unknown variety. Protectable varieties must meet internationally recognized requirements. These are a variety name that can be entered, consistency in subsequent propagations (the characteristics of their decisive characteristics must remain unchanged even after repeated propagation), homogeneity (plants must have the same properties with a few exceptions), distinctness (plants must have at least one characteristic morphological from plants of any other variety of a member state) and novelty.
In one over several growing seasons ongoing variety testing at different locations is in Germany and Austria the agricultural value (higher performance compared to other comparable varieties). Such exists when there is an improvement for the cultivation, in particular resistance against harmful organisms such as fungal diseases, for the recovery of the crop or crop products. The results lead to a technical test report and the UPOV variety description. Plant variety protection only applies to the country for which it was applied for, or to EU member states for the entire EU after a corresponding application to the CPVO. If the test result is positive, plant variety protection is granted and the variety is entered in the plant variety protection role. The protection period for grape varieties can be up to 30 years. The protected variety may only be propagated and marketed by the breeder and his licensees.
According to the EU regulation, each member state is responsible for classifying the grape varieties used. The country-specific and regional-specific are approved for wine production and for the production of quality wine suitable grape varieties. A preliminary stage provides approval for Wine and country wine There are only restrictions with regard to hybrids (see under Quality wine-grape varieties ). The varieties are listed in the country-specific variety lists with a description of their properties with very similar characteristics, whereby inclusion in this list requires variety protection.
In Germany the grape varieties permitted here are classified in the "Descriptive Grape Variety List" of the Federal Plant Variety Office according to their intended use:
These are described here in detail with winegrowing features and characteristics and their expression is assessed by marks expressed in numbers (mostly in the range 1 to 9). These are, among other things Austriebs- and Maturity date; Tendency to Epicormic shoot formation and Verrieseln; Susceptibility to fungal diseases such as Botrytis, Real and wrong mildew; Beer texture; Mostgewicht; earnings as well as wintry frost hardiness,
In Austria the approved wine grapes, table grapes and rootstocks in the "Austrian Grape Variety Directory", a database of the Klosterneuburg Wine Institute (Lower Austria). Here are also those DNA profile, the berry taste, the tendency of the berries to burst after precipitation, the regeneration after spring frost, as well as pictures of sheet. grape, Berry, core and shoot tip contain.
Two databases of the Institute for Vine Breeding Geilweilerhof in Siebeldingen (Palatinate-Germany) contains extensive information and literature references from well over 10,000 grape varieties, many of which also refer to the DNA profiles (see also under VIVC ). In the representational glossary there are lists of the grape variety descriptions contained with hyperlinks under the two keywords new breed (around 1,000) and vine (with the top 150). A total of around 1,700 grape varieties are described in the glossary, each with its own keyword. These can also be around 3,000 Synonyms (Alias names) or homonyms searched / found.
All tools, work and measures in the vineyard during the growth cycle can be found at Weingarten Care, Complete lists of the numerous cellar techniques, as well as a list of the wine, sparkling wine and distillate types regulated by wine law are under the keyword winemaking contain. Extensive wine law information is available under the keyword Weingesetz .