Winegrowing in Spain has a long and ancient tradition, already 3000 years BC. Chr. Were cultivated vines. The Phoenicians founded around 1100 BC The city Gadir (today's Cádiz) and operated rain trade in wine in the Mediterranean. The first flowering period was 200 BC. Chr., Because the Romans loved the wine from Baetica (Andalusia). The development was stopped by the invasion of the Moors in 711. For religious reasons, the Muslims cleared large parts of the vineyards or allowed only the production of raisins, They brought the art of distillation which, however, was not used for alcoholic beverages, but essential oils, as fragrances and fragrances. Only after 700 years did the Christians succeed in reconquering and, as they advanced southwards, they laid new vineyards. As in many other countries, it was mostly monks who used to prepare vines near their monasteries altar wine planted. In the following centuries, viticulture became an important economic and export branch. From the beginning of the 16th century, the conquistadors brought huge quantities of wine to the newly discovered America. The Spaniards planted there in many areas of European vines, thus initiating viticulture on this continent, especially in Central and South America, They made a significant contribution in many countries of the world New world,
In the second half of the 19th century fell the phylloxera also in Spain and destroyed most of the vineyards. But Rioja was spared for the time being and when the pest reached this area in the early 20th century, most of the vineyards were already planted with grafted vines. The French could no longer meet the demand for wine in their own country due to the vineyards destroyed by phylloxera. First, French traders bought large quantities of wine in Spain, later many French winemakers emigrated to Spain and operated viticulture. Their sophisticated cellar technology has left a lasting mark on viticulture until today.
In the early 1930s there was political unrest. These eventually led to the Spanish Civil War and ended in 1939 with the victory of the nationalists under General Franco. During this time vineyards and many wineries were destroyed on a large scale. After opening the borders and joining the European Union In 1986 there was a new beginning in Spanish viticulture. From the 1960s began a big boom with the typical Spanish wines Rioja and sherry, Today Spain is one of the most dynamic wine countries in the world. In 2012, the vineyard area amounted to 1.017 million hectares, of which 31.1 million hectoliters of wine were produced. This puts Spain in the absolute top spot worldwide and is a knight Italy and France constantly for the first place (see also under Wine production volumes ).
Spain is one of the most mountainous countries in Europe (after Switzerland and Albania). The land is criss-crossed by large river veins that provide water for the vineyards. These are Ebro and Duero in the north, the Tagus in the west, the Guadiana in the south, and Júcar and Turia in the east. Spain is divided into three climatic zones. In the "green Spain" in the north with Aragon, Asturias, Basque country. Galicia. Cantabria. Catalonia. Navarra and La Rioja There is a high amount of precipitation with hot summers and cold winters. In the center lies the extensive central plateau Meseta (Tafelland) with the regions Extremadura and La Mancha, It is characterized by extremely hot summers, very cold winters and low rainfall. The third zone is the coastline with the southern one Catalonia, of the Levant and Andalusia, Here ocean breezes ease the hot summers, but there is also little rainfall. Of the over 600 grape varieties are many autochthonous used only locally. Of the Blend 2010 (Statistics Kym Anderson ):
Synonyms or Spanish name
|Airén||White||Burra Blanca, Colgadera||252364|
|Tempranillo||red||Cencibel, Chinchillana, Tinto del País||207677|
|Bobal||red||Moravio, Tinta Madrid||80120|
|Garnacha Tinta||red||Grenache Noir, Cannonau||70,140|
|Cayetana Blanca||White||Jaén Blanco, Pardina||39593|
|Alicante Henri Bouschet||red||Garnacha Tintorera||19551|
|Palomino||White||Palomino Fino, Listán Blanco...|