See below Press,
Designation (also pressing) for both the pressing process grapes, as well as for the necessary mechanical devices. Presses were made in the early antiquity uses what finds of artifacts from several thousand years old in many old wine-growing areas prove. Among other things, the Roman writer reports Cato the Elder (234-149 BC) about it in his works. Pressing is a crucial step in the winemaking, As a rule, only healthy and physiologically mature Grapes go to processing, which is done by appropriate preparatory work such as selective vintage is accomplished. Depending on the type of wine, a decision must be made whether to press before stemming (De-stalking, rebeling), that means whether the grape skeleton should be removed. When pressing the grape excreted from the grapes by mechanical pressure. Depending on the type of wine, it is separated from the solid components and then further processed, especially with the White wine, where pressing is usually the first step. In the Red wine production this becomes only after the classic maceration carried out.
If the combs are pressed together, they give tannins (Tannins) and pigments (Coloring), which may be desirable for grapes with a strong fruit taste or for red wine production, for example, through technology Maceration carbonique is common. The grapes should be processed as gently as possible by minimizing mechanical influence in order to avoid the undesirable effects in white wine making proportion of turbid (the smallest suspended matter from berry skins and pulp) and the tannin content in the must to keep as low as possible. Modern cellar technology therefore tries to use natural gravity to move grapes and must instead of pumping. Each pumping process increases the amount of turbidity up to 1%. Pneumatic tank presses are the most gentle in this regard.
The use of the latest pneumatic presses and the frequent whole grape pressing process intact grapes, since the combs are not squeezed by the gentle pressing process and there is no risk of too much tannins in the must. Depending on the variant, the grapes (with or without combs) are then squeezed or ground, the berries broken up and the juice leakage made easier. The desired intensity can be set variably. It is an ancient form of squeezing pounding of grapes with bare feet in a container. Occasionally, this is still common today, especially in southern countries, for example in the manufacture of port wine, The result of stripping and squeezing is called a mash. When making red wine now without...