See below Press,
Designation (also Keltern) both for the process of pressing the grapes, as well as for the necessary mechanical devices. Presses were already in the early antiquity what finds of several thousand year old artifacts in many old wine regions prove. Among other things, the Roman writer reports Cato the Elder (234-149 BC) about it in his works. The pressing is a crucial step of the winemaking, As a rule, only healthy and physiologically mature Grape groves are processed, which is done by preparatory work such as selective vintage is accomplished. Depending on the type of wine must be decided, whether already before pressing a stemming (Dehacking, Rebeln) takes place, that is, whether the grape skeleton should be removed. When pressing the grape excreted from the grapes by mechanical pressure. Depending on the type of wine, it is separated from the solid components and then further processed, especially in the White wine, where usually the pressing is done as a first step. In the Red wine production This will be only after the classic maceration carried out.
If the combs are mitgekeltert, they give tannins (Gerbstoffe) and pigments (Dyes), which may well be desirable in grapes with a strong fruit taste or in the red wine preparation, for example by the technique Macération carbonique is common. The grapes should be processed as gently as possible by minimizing mechanical influence in order to avoid the unwanted proportion of turbid (smallest suspended matter from berry peel and pulp) and the tannin content in the must keep as low as possible. In modern cellar technology, it is therefore attempted to use natural gravity for the movement of grapes and must instead of pumping. Each pumping action increases the amount of turbidity up to 1%. In this regard, the most gentle are pneumatic tank presses.
By using the most modern pneumatic presses and the frequent whole-grape pressing intact grapes are processed, since the gentle pressing process, the combs are not crushed and no risk of too much tannins in the must. Depending on the variant, the grapes (with or without combs) are then squeezed or ground, the berries thereby broken and thus facilitates the juice exit. The desired intensity can be set variably. An ancient form of bruising is that pounding of grapes with bare feet in a container. Occasionally this is customary even today in southern countries, for example in the production of port wine, The result of stewing and squeezing is called mash. In the red wine preparation is now without pressing the...