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vine

vitigno (I)
casta (PO)
grape variety (GB)
cépage, type de vigne (F)
variedad de uva (ES)

As with most crops, there is also the grapevine different varieties, which are referred to in viticulture as grape varieties (cultivars). The morphological Description is under the keyword Rebstock contain. The science of describing the grape varieties is called ampelography (Grape varieties). The botanical taxonomy (hierarchical system due to the relationships) is under Vines systematics described. Over the millennia, spontaneous (natural) crossing and sowing, accidental mutations and especially from the 19th century through targeted new breed Thousands of new grape varieties have emerged. Primarily, they are always produced by fertilized kernels or targeted seed kernels that have reached the soil, ie are products of one generative (sexual) reproduction,

Rebsorte - Weintrauben in allen Farben (blau, gelb, rot, weiß)

After Kernaussaat can from each embryo again a new one seedling grow up with individual characteristics. If this is selected by man, reared and felt to be worthy of cultivation, by this by vegetative propagation diverted more vines, leaving a new variety with specific phenotypic and genotypic Characteristics is justified. At the beginning of a grape variety, therefore, there was always a seedling originating from the fertilization of an egg cell and germinated from the vine core, which was used for the vine and because of its positive qualities was selected as a new grape variety and vegetatively propagated. This comes with new varieties usually from two different parent species, however, pass through seedlings selfing (Self-fertilization) in principle the same process, so that the originated from a self-originating plants new grape varieties. That is in the heterozygous, that is to say split-legged quality of the grapevine (inability of identical descendants).

Origin of variety of grape varieties

From the seedling stock or the so-called mother vine vegetatively branched and initially completely identical vines copies may over time by spontaneous mutations in the cell lines of the L1 (epidermis) and L2 (inner cell layers) somatic chimeric and Klonmutanten training so that the mutated sticks undergo a slow individualization process that gradually makes them distinguishable from each other. The older a grape variety, and the more copies (vines) have been diverted from it over the centuries or millennia by vegetative propagation and in turn multiplied, the more likely it is that numerous mutations are also on the morphology have affected the plants.

If these differences are further multiplied by vegetative propagation, local and regional clusters of clone mutants are formed, which differ more or less from the original seed type (seed varieties). game types ) and, in turn, establish their own lines of development over time through the constant process of propagation. For salient features, such mutant clones were often treated as stand-alone varieties. For example, with the grape varieties Pinot Blanc. Pinot gris and Frühburgunder (Pinot Précoce), in the berry color or in the Maturity date mutated Clones of Pinot Noir (Blauburgunders) represent. It is a loss of color.

The number of existing grape varieties is based on rough estimates plus / minus 30%. in the VIVC (Vitis International Variety Catalog), more than 18,000 grape varieties are registered, including breeding strains, hybrid varieties, wild species and historical varieties. However, many of them are unrecognized Synonyms (Pseudonyms) are located, or even grape varieties that no longer exist. Realistic estimates go from 8,000 to 10,000 species of European species Vitis vinifera out (see also under Vines systematics ). The reason for the inaccuracy of the estimate is that it is difficult to keep a precise count, as many grape varieties are cultivated under different names in the countries, and to date no one has succeeded in matching the thousands of varieties of comprehensive national stock of varieties by international comparison.

There is a great deal of uncertainty about the varieties from the Eastern Bloc (former Yugoslavia, former USSR, etc.), Turkey or Japan, India and China. But also varieties from Portugal, Spain, Italy, Malta and Greece have been described in part only insufficient, so that only the direct comparison of live plants or genotypes could provide information. With the aid of the method of genetic fingerprinting, which has meanwhile become internationally standardized for the vine, sorting can be carried out relatively easily at the desk. This is done by molecular genetics Analyzes and comparisons of genetic patterns. Important scientists and ampelographers in the field of DNA analysis are among others Jean-Michel Boursiquot (France), Javier Ibáñez (Spain), dr. Erika Maul (Germany), Dr. med. Carole P. Meredith (USA), dr. Ferdinand Regner (Austria), Anna Schneider (Italy) and dr. Joseph. Vouillamoz (Switzerland).

Already Etruscan, Romans and Greeks, and certainly the earlier civilizations such as Egyptian. Babylonian, Hittites and Phoenicians have already conducted targeted seedling selection (selection). However, no one knows whether they have already deliberately transferred pollen from one variety to another, ie deliberately created crosses between two varieties. From the Romans about 150 Latin grape varieties are handed down. However, the Roman poet writes Virgil (70-19 BC) on the grape varieties, they were "countless like the grains of sand in the desert" (see also under antique grape varieties and ancient wines ). Great merit in the cultivation of grape varieties and further development of viticulture, the Catholic monastic orders of the Benedictine. Carthusians and Cistercian acquired from the 6th century in many countries decisive impetus.

Most European cultivars go to a relatively small group of leading varieties and their spontaneous intersections back. The most important is probably Gouais blanc (White Heunisch), of which over 100 varieties like Riesling (Germany), Chardonnay (France), Blaufränkisch and Sylvaner (Austria), as well as Furmint (Hungary). Also Traminer (Savagnin Blanc) with Chenin Blanc. Sauvignon Blanc and Red Veltliner, such as Pinot (often with Gouais Blanc) have left many traces. Others with many descendants are Cabernet Franc. Cayetana Blanca. Chasselas. Rèze. Garganega. Listán Prieto. Luglienga Bianca. Muscat Blanc. Nebbiolo. Teroldego and Tribidrag, The representation of the descent in the form of a Vine family tree Sadly, that is not possible.

The research center Domaine de Vassal at Montpellier in Languedoc-Roussillon in France cultivates the largest living grape variety in the world with several thousand copies. Among them are 2,300 European grape varieties of the European species Vitis vinifera, 800 interspecific crossings or hybrids, 230 documents and 28 Wild vine species, The collection also includes varieties no longer used in practice. Today, according to the respective legal provisions of the countries about 2,500 Quality wine-grape varieties but many of them only play a local role. Of factual global importance are only a few hundred. As important ampelographers of modern times, the French Pierre Galet (* 1921), who described in his numerous publications about 10,000 varieties, and Paul Truel (* 1924), who has clarified the identity of many varieties.

vine belt

In around 100 of the approximately 200 countries around the world, vines are planted today. The best climatic conditions exist in the two so-called vines belts (40th to 50th north and 30th to 40th south latitude) at 100 to 400 meters above sea level, although there are also vineyards outside these areas. The grape variety has next to rock, soil type. climate, Location and method of vinification have a decisive influence on the character and quality of a wine. Each country, wine-growing region, wine-growing region and even often the smallest sub-areas have their typical grape varieties, which also characterize the typical characteristics of the resulting wine. Through the worldwide spread of imported from America phylloxera European grape varieties must be refined almost everywhere in the world to prevent phylloxera damage to the roots.

Rebengürtel - Weltkarte mit Weinbaugebieten

The 150 most common grape varieties

The total worldwide vineyard area was 7.487 million hectares in 2012 , or 74,870 km², which is about 90% of the size of Austria (83,856 km²). In Europe, with more than 4.1 million hectares, more than half of them are. The great wines are mainly from a limited number of grape varieties (10 to 15), the Cépages classy, According to EU Regulation need for quality wines approved for this Quality wine-grape varieties be used. The following ranking list contains the 150 most common grape varieties worldwide according to their cultivated area. Significant source is the beginning of 2014 published work "Which Winegrape Varieties are Grown Where? A Global Empirical Picture " by the Australian Professor of Economics Kym Anderson,

The comparison of 1990 and 2000 with 2010 shows the large changes in quantity over the 20 and 10 years for many varieties; so in a relatively short period of time. Some varieties have been increasingly grown due to changing wine and increasing quality standards, others because of poor quality, disease susceptibility and legislation such as the hybrid ban in the EU cleared or greatly reduced. The Spanish Airén, which has been the undisputed leader for many decades, has shrunk by almost half and has been surpassed by the two quality varieties Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, which doubled their stocks over the same period.

Rebsorten - Top 6

The Sultana cultivar, most of which was used as a tablecloth in 1990 with 271,828 hectares, ranked 138th in 2010 with only 3,407 hectares for wine production (there are around 250,000 hectares for table grape production). Other big relegated players were Concord, Garnacha Tinta, Rkatsiteli and Trebbiano Toscano. Big newcomers were in addition to the already mentioned two new leaders Chardonnay, Mazuelo, Monastrell, Muscat Blanc, Pinot Gris, Pinot Noir, Sauvignon Blanc, Syrah, Tempranillo and Welschriesling. These 150 quantitatively leading grape varieties now account for about half of the total world vineyard area (in the penultimate column is the value of 1990 or, if not known, of 2000):

Grape variety (Synonyms)

F

origin

2010

rg

1990
2000

rg

Cabernet Sauvignon (Lafite, Bidure) r France 288174 1 127678 8th
Merlot (Crabutet, Médoc Noir) r France 267169 2 154752 4
Airén (Aidén, Blancón, Burra Blanca) w Spain 252364 3 476396 1
Tempranillo (Cencibel, Tinta del País) r Spain 232561 4 47429 24
Chardonnay (Morillon) w France 198793 5 69282 13
Syrah (Petite Syrah, Shiraz) r France 185568 6 35086 35
Garnacha Tinta (Grenache Noir) r Spain 181485 7 282997 2
Sauvignon Blanc (Fumé Blanc) w France 111285 8th 44677 25
Trebbiano Toscano (Ugni Blanc) w Italy 109772 9 207742 5
Pinot Noir (Pinot Noir, Spätburg.) r France 98395 10 41539 30
mazuelo (Bovale Grande, Carignan) r Spain 80178 11 202869 6
Bobal (Moravio) r Spain 80120 12 106149 10
Sangiovese ( Brunello. Prugnolo gentile ) r Italy 77709 13 98946 11
Monastrell (Mataró, Mourvèdre) r Spain 69748 14 108213 9
Riesling (Graševina, R. Italico) w Croatia 61,200 15 19384 48
Rkatsiteli (Rkatziteli) w Georgia 58641 16 280569 3
Cabernet Franc (Breton, Vidure) r France 53042 17 39619 32
Riesling (Rheinriesling) w Germany 49997 18 52164 21
Pinot gris (Pinot Gris, Ruländer) w France 43563 19 18879 44
Macabeo (Viura) w Spain 41046 20 43504 26
Cot (Côt, Malbec, Pressac) r France 40663 21 16997 52
Cayetana Blanca (Jáen Blanco, Pardina) w Spain 39741 22 65276 16
Alicante Henri Bouschet (A. Bouschet) r France 38371 23 19587 47
Aligoté (Alligotay) w France 36120 24 54430 20
Cinsault (Cinsault) w France 36040 25 63171 18
Chenin Blanc (Pinot de la Loire, Steen) w France 35214 26 59974 19
Montepulciano (Cordisco, Morellone) r Italy 34947 27 32982 37
Catarratto Bianco (Comune, Lucido) w Italy 34863 28 80128 12
Tribidrag / Zinfandel (Primitive) r Croatia 32745 29 41683 29
Isabella (Constantia, Frutilla) w United States 32494 30 21003 42
Colombard (French Colombard) w France 32459 31 36138 34
Gamay (Gamay Noir) r France 31927 32 35005 36
Muscat Blanc / muscatel w France 31183 33 17806 50
Cereza (C. Elipsoidal, C. Italica) r Argentina 29189 34 42937 27
Muscat d'Alexandrie (Zibibbo) w Greece / Italy 26336 35 64224 17
Barbera (B. Amaro, B. d'Asti, B. Dolce) r Italy 24,178 36 67987 15
Müller-Thurgau (Rivaner) w Germany 22753 37 36381 33
Palomino (Palomino Fino, Listán Blanco) w Spain 22645 38 50545 22
Sémillon (Merwah, Semilão, Wyndruif) w France 22156 39 31687 38
Douce Noire (Bonarda, Charbono) r France 18976 40 17653 45
Green Valtellina (Veltliner) w Austria 18849 41 20760 43
Glera (Prosecco, Teran Bijeli) w Italy 18437 42 7498 84
Blaufränkisch (Lemberger, Limberger) r Austria 17888 43 12879 62
Fetească Albă (Dievcie Hrozno) w Romania 17469 44 18373 49
Criolla Grande (Criolla Sanjuanina) r Argentina 17,080 45 68513 14
Nero d'Avola (Calabrese) r Italy 16596 46 11318 66
Verdejo (Albillo de Nava, V. Blanco) w Spain 16578 47 4453 117
Doukkali (Bezzoul el Aouda) r Morocco 16557 48 16557 49
Trebbiano Romagnolo (T. della Fiamma) w Italy 15893 49 19492 43
Garganega (Grecanico Dorato) w Italy 15402 50 16549 50
Prokupac (Prokupats, Prokupec) r Serbia 15,180 51 15,180 53
Pinot Blanc (Pinot) w France 14724 52 16990 47
Gewurztraminer / Traminer (Savagnin) w France 14,355 53 16511 53
Pinot Meunier (Meunier) r France 13570 54 10832 70
Chasselas (Fendant Blanc, Gutedel) w Switzerland? 13214 55 13318 58
Fetească Regală (Pesecká Leánka) w Romania 13136 56 2578 178
Melon de Bourgogne (Melon) w France 12,365 57 13253 59
Pedro Giménez (Pedro Jiménez) w Argentina 12,250 58 15101 54
Concord (Bull's Seedling) r United States 12238 59 30513 39
Touriga Franca (Touriga Francesa) r Portugal 11586 60 6674 94
Negroamaro (Nigroamaro, Purcinara) r Italy 11460 61 40064 31
Viognier (Viognier Vert, Vionnier) w France 11,400 62 3160 155
Carmenère (Grande Vidure) r France 11360 63 5711 108
Castelão (João Santarém, Periquita) r Portugal 11086 64 14,424 56
Trebbiano Giallo (Trebbiano di Spagna) w Italy 10,664 65 3984 130
Mencia (Jaen du Dão) r Spain 10658 66 17321 51
Touriga Nacional (Bical Tinto) r Portugal 10435 67 4263 122
Muscat Ottonel (Muscat Ottonel) w France 10234 68 12259 64
Aglianico (Aglianico del Vulture) r Italy 9963 69 9624 75
Savatiano (Aspro, Doumpraina Lefki) w Greece 9920 70 20396 44
Malvasia Bianca di Candia (Candia) w Italy 9891 71 42654 28
Zweigelt (Blue Zweigelt) r Austria 9847 72 7230 89
Pamid (Roşioáră) r Bulgaria 9827 73 22718 42
Fernão Pires (Maria Gomes, Molinha) w Portugal 9511 74 14545 55
Trincadeira Preta (Tinta Amarela) r Portugal 9270 75 7265 88
Pedro Ximénez (Perrum) w Spain 9243 76 47915 23
Parellada (Montona) w Spain 8847 77 11188 67
Vermentino (Favorita, Pigato) w Spain? 8617 78 5835 107
Roditis (Alepou Roditis) r Greece 8495 79 7244 ?
Xarello (Pansal, Xarel • Lo) w Spain 8393 80 10288 74
Bordo (Grana d'Oro) r United States 8287 81 3379 174
Muscat d'Hamburg r England? 8137 82 7066 93
Saperavi (Saperavi) r Georgia 8126 83 6707 96
Torrontà © Riojano (Torrontél Riojano) w Argentina 8115 84 8187 81
Dornfelder (Weinsberg S 341) r Germany 8101 85 3766 134
Tsolikouri (Tsolikouri) w Georgia 7903 86 6161 102
Síria (Códega, Doña Blanca, Roupeiro) w Portugal 7898 87 2791 169
Tinto Velasco (T. de la Pámpana Blanca) r Portugal / Spain 7829 88 7898 83
Corvina Veronese (Corvina Comune) r Italy 7496 89 4781 114
Garnacha Blanca (Grenache Blanc) w Spain 7398 90 28409 40
Sylvaner (Sylvaner) w Austria 7389 91 11044 ?
Moscatel Rosada (Moscatel Rosado) w Argentina 7329 92 10656 73
Petit Verdot (Verdot) r France 7202 93 1481 235
Blue Portuguese (Portuguese) r Austria 6798 94 ? ?
Marufo (Moravia Dulce, Mourisco) r Portugal 6579 95 6339 101
Bianca (Bianka, Egri Csillagok 40) w Hungary 6462 96 2180 200
Pinotage (Perold's Hermitage x Pinot) r South Africa 6404 97 6574 98
Dolcetto (Nibièu, Nibiò, Ormeasco) r Italy 6333 98 7191 90
Grillo (Ariddu, Riddu, Rossese Bianco) w Italy 6295 99 1803 214
Tinta Barroca (Barocco, Tinta Barocca) r Portugal 6172 100 6052 103
Chelva (Forastera Blanca) w Spain 6168 101 10877 69
Inzolia (Ansonica) w Italy 6133 102 9259 76
Nebbiolo (Chiavennasca, Spanna) r Italy 5992 103 5047 112
Tannat (Harriague) r France 5940 104 5557 109
Ruby Cabernet (Cabernet Ruby) r United States 5730 105 7419 86
Croatina (Bonarda) r Italy 5700 106 3116 157
Alvarinho (Albariño) w Portugal / Spain 5523 107 5113 111
Furmint (Moslavac Bijeli, Šipon, Som) w Hungary 5276 108 3,481 141
Trebbiano d'Abruzzo (T. di Teramo) w Italy 5091 109 8435 78
Lambrusco Salamino (L. di Santa Croce) w Italy 5003 110 4147 126
Gros Manseng (Manseng Gros Blanc) w France 4995 111 2160 201
Rufete (Castellana, Tinta Pinheira) r Portugal 4833 112 3397 142
Ancellotta (Lancellotta) r Italy 4774 113 4931 119
Niagara (White Concord) w United States 4670 114 15343 52
Prieto Picudo (Prieto Picudo Tinto) r Spain 4587 115 3256 149
Listán Prieto (Criolla Chica, Misión, País) r Spain 4564 116 15532 51
Olmo grapes (Rubyred) r United States 4556 117 4153 125
Sauvignonasse (Friulano, Tai, Tuchì) w France 4449 118 5494 110
Arinto (Arinto de Bucelas, Pedernã) w Portugal 4446 119 3966 131
Pardillo (Pardilla) w Spain 4364 120 7272 87
Gaglioppo (Gaglioppo di Cirò) r Italy 4214 121 3592 138
Misket Cherven (Misket Sungurlarsky) w Bulgaria 4159 122 ? ?
Baga (Tinta Bairrada) r Portugal 4108 123 6730 95
Zalema (Torrontés de Montilla) w Spain 4097 124 5969 105
Loureiro (Loureiro Blanco) w Portugal 4054 125 4932 118
Kerner (White Herald) w Germany 3994 126 7111 91
Merseguera (Esquitxagos) w Spain 3946 127 7460 85
Caladoc (Kaladok) r France 3675 128 1427 240
St. Laurent (Saint Laurent) r Austria 3665 129 2370 184
Tsitska (Tsitsiko, Zizka) w Georgia 3642 130 2839 164
Cserszegi Füszeres (C. Füszeries) w Hungary 3609 131 2185 199
Mavro (Kypreiko Mavro) r Cyprus 3575 132 10969 68
Durif (Petite Sirah) r France 3557 133 1197 269
Verdicchio Bianco (Boschera) w Italy 3532 134 5043 113
Teneron (Valenciana Blanca) w Spain 3488 135 3488 140
Trousseau Noir (Trousseau, Bastardo) r France 3431 136 2120 203
Malvasia Fina (Boal, Torrontés) w Portugal 3416 137 7102 92
Sultana (Sultana, Sultaniye) w Mediterranean 3407 138 271828 4
Negramoll (Mollar) r Spain 3193 139 3557 139
Vinhão (Sousão, Sousón, Tinta País) r Portugal 3160 140 5937 106
Băbească Neagră (Rara Neagră) r Romania / Ukraine 3122 141 3722 136
Graciano (Bovale, Tinta Miúda) r Spain 3112 142 1910 211
Carignan Blanc (Cariñena Blanca) w France 3061 143 1035 287
Aspiran Bouschet (A. Bouchet) r France 3042 144 308 432
Falanghina (Falanghina Bianca) w Italy 3037 145 1658 221
Beba (Boal de Praça) w Spain 3036 146 4762 115
Cortese (Corteis) r Italy 2953 147 3113 158
Agiorgitiko (Mavroudi Nemeas) r Greece 2905 148 2320 189
Clairette (Blanquette, Clairet) w France 2820 149 4003 129
Aramon Noir (Ugni Noir) r France 2561 150 9084 77

Varietal aromas

Each species has specific characteristics that are considered as typical of the variety be designated (see also under flavorings ). But it depends on the type of winemaking whether these potential properties actually appear in the wine. In an intense Barrique These can be completely covered.

typische Rebsortenaromen

Grape variety description in wine Glossary

Two databases of the institute for vine breeding Geilweilerhof in Siebeldingen (Palatinate Germany) contain comprehensive information of well over 10,000 grape varieties (see also under VIVC ). The glossary describes about 2,000 grape varieties. There are about 1,000 of them new breed a lineup. The grape varieties can also have about 5,000 Synonyms (Aliases) are searched / found. The descriptions include:

  • ancestry (Country) - as far as known
  • Synonyms (many names for one grape variety) & homonyms (a name for many grape varieties)
  • Name meaning and historical backgrounds (anecdotes, famous wines)
  • pictures of grape and sheet at around 1,000 grape varieties
  • Breeding year and breeders at new varieties
  • Parenting / parenting and relationships according to the latest DNA analysis
  • morphological similar grape varieties (likelihood of confusion)
  • Parenting for other varieties ( Mother- or fathers)
  • Properties ( Maturity date. resistance or susceptibility to certain diseases)
  • typical flavorings or. sensory Properties bez. Sweet. acid Etc.
  • Potential regarding the durability and viability of the vinified wines
  • Cultivation countries / growing areas with the vineyards in hectare

Sources and further information

As an important source regarding grape varieties, with kind permission of Swiss biologist Dr. Ing. José Vouillamoz the standard work " Wine Grapes - A complete guide to 1,368 vine varieties "used. A list of grapevine relevant keywords is under grapevine contain. All work and measures in the vineyard can be found under Weingarten Care, Complete listings of the numerous cellar techniques, as well as a list of wine regulated, sparkling wine and distillate types are under winemaking contain. Comprehensive wine law information is available at wine law,

Grape Varieties Colors: Pixabay
World Map: The Winzer 1 - Weinbau, Ulmer Verlag 2019, 4th edition
Grape Varieties: Ursula Bruehl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)
Aroma glasses: armin faber info@faberpartner.de

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