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vitigno (I)
casta (PO)
grape variety (GB)
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As with most crops, there is also the grapevine different varieties, which are called grape varieties (cultivars) in viticulture. The morphological Description is under the keyword Rebstock contain. The science of describing grape varieties is called ampelography (Grape varieties). The botanical taxonomy (hierarchical classification based on the relationship) is under Vines systematics described. Over the millennia, spontaneous (natural) crossing and sowing, random mutations and especially from the 19th century onwards new breed Thousands of new grape varieties emerged. Primarily, they always arise from fertilized kernels or targeted kernel seeding, which means they are products of one generative (sexual) reproduction,

Rebsorte - Weintrauben in allen Farben (blau, gelb, rot, weiß)

After core sowing, a new one can be created from each embryo seedling grow out with individual characteristics. If this is selected by man, raised and perceived as worthy of cultivation, by him vegetative propagation more vines branched off, making a new variety with specific phenotypic and genotypic Characteristics is justified. At the beginning of a grape variety there was always a seedling that emerged from the fertilization of an egg cell and germinated from the vine core, which was used for the vine and because of its positive properties was selected as a new grape variety and propagated vegetatively. This comes from new varieties usually from two different parent varieties, but seedlings run out selfing (Self-fertilization) basically the same process, so that the plants resulting from self-fertilization also create new grape varieties. That is in the heterozygous, that is, the split-grained property of the vine is established (inability of descendants of the same variety).

Origin of the variety of grape varieties

From time to time, the vine copies, which are vegetatively branched off from the seedling vine or the so-called mother vine, can become somatic due to spontaneous mutations in the cell lines of the L1 (epidermis) and L2 (inner cell layers) chimeric and Klonmutanten train so that the mutated sticks go through a slow individualization process that gradually makes them distinguishable from each other. The older a grape variety is, and the more copies (vines) of it have been branched and reproduced through vegetative propagation over the centuries or millennia, the more likely it is that numerous mutations will also affect the morphology of plants have affected.

If these differences are further multiplied by vegetative propagation, local and regional groups of mutant clones form, which differ more or less from the original starting type (seedling) (variety variants or game types ) and in turn establish independent development lines over the course of time through the constant multiplication process. In the case of striking features, such mutation-related variety clones were often treated as independent varieties. For example with the grape varieties Pinot Blanc. Pinot gris and Frühburgunder (Pinot Précoce), which in the berry color or in Maturity date mutated Clones of Pinot Noir (Pinot Noir) represent. It is a loss of color.

The number of existing grape varieties is based on rough estimates with plus / minus 30%. in the VIVC (Vitis International Variety Catalog) more than 18,000 grape varieties are registered, including breeding lines, hybrid varieties, game species and historical varieties. However, there are likely to be numerous undetected ones Synonyms (Pseudonyms), or grape varieties that no longer exist. Realistic estimates range from 8,000 to 10,000 varieties of the European species Vitis vinifera from (see also under Vines systematics ). The reason for the inaccuracy of the estimate is that an exact count is difficult because numerous grape varieties are cultivated under different names in the countries, and to date no one has been able to compare the thousands of varieties of national varieties in an international comparison.

There is great uncertainty, especially about the varieties from the Eastern Bloc (former Yugoslavia, former USSR etc.), Turkey or from Japan, India and China. However, varieties from Portugal, Spain, Italy, Malta and Greece have also been insufficiently described, so that only a direct comparison of the living plants or the genotypes could provide information. With the help of the now internationally standardized method of genetic fingerprinting for the vine, the variety comparison can be carried out relatively easily at the desk. This is done by molecular genetics Analysis and comparison of genetic patterns. Important scientists and ampelographers in the field of DNA analysis include Dr. Jean-Michel Boursiquot (France), Javier Ibáñez (Spain), Dr. Erika Maul (Germany), Dr. Carole P. Meredith (USA), Dr. Ferdinand Regner (Austria), Anna Schneider (Italy) and Dr. Joseph. Vouillamoz (Switzerland).

Already Etruscan, Romans and Greeks, and certainly the earlier civilizations like Egyptian. Babylonian, Hittite and Phoenicians have already carried out targeted seedling selection (selection). Nobody knows whether they have already transferred pollen from one variety to the other, i.e. have deliberately created crosses between two varieties. About 150 Latin grape variety names have survived from the Romans. However, the Roman poet writes Virgil (70-19 BC) about the grape varieties, that they are "countless like the grains of sand in the desert" (see also under ancient grape varieties and ancient wines ). The Catholic monastic orders of the. Have greatly contributed to the cultivation of grape varieties and the further development of viticulture Benedictine. Carthusians and Cistercian acquired, which gave decisive impulses in many countries from the 6th century.

Most European cultivars go from a relatively small group of leading varieties and their spontaneous intersections back. The most important is probably Gouais Blanc (White Heisch), of which over 100 varieties like Riesling (Germany), Chardonnay (France), Blaufränkisch and Sylvaner (Austria), and Furmint (Hungary) descended. Also Traminer (Savagnin Blanc) with Chenin Blanc. Sauvignon Blanc and Red Veltliner, such as Pinot (often with Gouais Blanc) have left many traces. There are more with many offspring Cabernet Franc. Cayetana Blanca. Chasselas. Rèze. Garganega. Listán Prieto. Luglienga Bianca. Muscat Blanc. Nebbiolo. Teroldego and Tribidrag, The representation of the parentage in the form of a Vine family tree Sadly, that is not possible.

The Domaine de Vassal research center at Montpellier in Languedoc-Roussillon in France cultivates the largest living range of vines in the world with several thousand copies. These include 2,300 European grape varieties of the European species Vitis vinifera, 800 interspecific crossings or hybrids, 230 documents and 28 Wild vine species, The collection also includes varieties that are no longer used in practice. Today there are about 2,500 according to the respective legal regulations of the countries Quality wine-grape varieties approved, but many of them only play a local role. Only a few hundred are of actual worldwide importance. The French Pierre are considered to be important ampelographers of modern times Galet (1921-2019), who described around 10,000 varieties in his numerous publications, and Paul Truel (* 1924), who clarified the identity of many varieties.

vine belt

Today vines are planted in around 100 of the roughly 200 countries around the world. The best climatic conditions are in the two so-called vines belts (40th to 50th north and 30th to 40th south latitude) at 100 to 400 meters above sea level, although there are also vineyards outside these areas. The grape variety has rock, soil type. climate, Location and vinification method have a decisive influence on the character and quality of a wine. Every country, wine-growing region, wine-growing region and even often the smallest sub-regions have their typical grape varieties, which also shape the typical properties of the wine obtained from them. Due to the worldwide spread of those imported from America phylloxera European grape varieties have to be refined almost everywhere in the world to prevent phylloxera damage at the roots.

Rebengürtel - Weltkarte mit Weinbaugebieten

The 150 most common grape varieties

The total area under vines in 2012 was 7.487 million hectares , which is 74,870 km², which is about 90% the size of Austria (83,856 km²). With around 4.1 million hectares, more than half of them are in Europe. The great wines come mainly from a limited number of grape varieties (10 to 15), the Cépages nobles, According to EU Regulation need for quality wines approved for it Quality wine-grape varieties be used. The following ranking lists the 150 most common grape varieties according to their acreage. The authoritative source is the work “Which Winegrape Varieties are Grown Where? A Global Empirical Picture ” by the Australian Professor of Economics Kym Anderson,

A comparison of the years 1990 and partly 2000 with 2010 shows the large quantitative changes in many varieties over the period of these 20 and 10 years; in a relatively short period of time. Individual varieties were increasingly cultivated due to changing wine fashions and increasing quality requirements, others due to poor quality, susceptibility to illnesses and legal requirements such as that hybrid ban in the EU cleared or greatly reduced. The Spanish Airén, which has been the undisputed leader for many decades, has shrunk by almost half and has been overtaken by the two quality varieties Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, which doubled their stocks in the same period.

Rebsorten - Top 6

The Sultana variety, which was still in 4th place in 1990 with 271,828 hectares, was ranked 138th in 2010 with only 3,407 hectares for wine production (but there are around 250,000 hectares for table grape production). Other major relegations were Concord, Garnacha Tinta, Rkatsiteli and Trebbiano Toscano. In addition to the two new leaders mentioned above, Chardonnay, Mazuelo, Monastrell, Muscat Blanc, Pinot Gris, Pinot Noir, Sauvignon Blanc, Syrah, Tempranillo and Welschriesling were great climbers . These 150 grape varieties, which are listed in terms of quantity, make up around half of the total world vine area (the penultimate column shows the value from 1990 or - if not known - from 2000):

Grape variety (synonyms)







Cabernet Sauvignon (Lafite, Bidure) r France 288174 1 127678 8th
Merlot (Crabutet, Médoc Noir) r France 267169 2 154752 4
Airén (Aidén, Blancón, Burra Blanca) w Spain 252364 3 476396 1
Tempranillo (Cencibel, Tinta del País) r Spain 232561 4 47429 24
Chardonnay (Morillon) w France 198793 5 69282 13
Syrah (Petite Syrah, Shiraz) r France 185568 6 35086 35
Garnacha Tinta (Grenache Noir) r Spain 181485 7 282997 2
Sauvignon Blanc (Fumé Blanc) w France 111285 8th 44677 25
Trebbiano Toscano (Ugni Blanc) w Italy 109772 9 207742 5
Pinot Noir (Pinot Noir, Spätburg.) r France 98395 10 41539 30
mazuelo (Bovale Grande, Carignan) r Spain 80178 11 202869 6
Bobal (Moravio) r Spain 80120 12 106149 10
Sangiovese ( Brunello. Prugnolo Gentile ) r Italy 77709 13 98946 11
Monastrell (Mataró, Mourvèdre) r Spain 69748 14 108213 9
Riesling (Graševina, R. Italico) w Croatia 61,200 15 19384 48
Rkatsiteli (Rkatziteli) w Georgia 58641 16 280569 3
Cabernet Franc (Breton, Vidure) r France 53042 17 39619 32
Riesling (Rheinriesling) w Germany 49997 18 52164 21
Pinot gris (Pinot Gris, Ruländer) w France 43563 19 18879 44
Macabeo (Viura) w Spain 41046 20 43504 26
Cot (Côt, Malbec, Pressac) r France 40663 21 16997 52
Cayetana Blanca (Jáen Blanco, Pardina) w Spain 39741 22 65276 16
Alicante Henri Bouschet (A. Bouschet) r France 38371 23 19587 47
Aligoté (Alligotay) w France 36120 24 54430 20
Cinsault (Cinsault) w France 36040 25 63171 18
Chenin Blanc (Pinot de la Loire, Steen) w France 35214 26 59974 19
Montepulciano (Cordisco, Morellone) r Italy 34947 27 32982 37
Catarratto Bianco (Comune, Lucido) w Italy 34863 28 80128 12
Tribidrag / Zinfandel (Primitive) r Croatia 32745 29 41683 29
Isabella (Constantia, Frutilla) w United States 32494 30 21003 42
Colombard (French Colombard) w France 32459 31 36138 34
Gamay (Gamay Noir) r France 31927 32 35005 36
Muscat Blanc / muscatel w France 31183 33 17806 50
Cereza (C. Elipsoidal, C. Italica) r Argentina 29189 34 42937 27
Muscat d'Alexandrie (Zibibbo) w Greece / Italy 26336 35 64224 17
Barbera (B. Amaro, B. d'Asti, B. Dolce) r Italy 24,178 36 67987 15
Müller-Thurgau (Rivaner) w Germany 22753 37 36381 33
Palomino (Palomino Fino, Listán Blanco) w Spain 22645 38 50545 22
Sémillon (Merwah, Semilão, Wyndruif) w France 22156 39 31687 38
Douce Noire (Bonarda, Charbono) r France 18976 40 17653 45
Green Valtellina (Veltliner) w Austria 18849 41 20760 43
Glera (Prosecco, Teran Bijeli) w Italy 18437 42 7498 84
Blaufränkisch (Lemberger, Limberger) r Austria 17888 43 12879 62
Feteasca Alba (Dievcie Hrozno) w Romania 17469 44 18373 49
Criolla Grande (Criolla Sanjuanina) r Argentina 17,080 45 68513 14
Nero d'Avola (Calabrese) r Italy 16596 46 11318 66
Verdejo (Albillo de Nava, V. Blanco) w Spain 16578 47 4453 117
Doukkali (Bezzoul el Aouda) r Morocco 16557 48 16557 49
Trebbiano Romagnolo (T. della Fiamma) w Italy 15893 49 19492 43
Garganega (Grecanico Dorato) w Italy 15402 50 16549 50
Prokupac (Prokupats, Prokupec) r Serbia 15,180 51 15,180 53
Pinot Blanc (Pinot) w France 14724 52 16990 47
Gewurztraminer / Traminer (Savagnin) w France 14,355 53 16511 53
Pinot Meunier (Meunier) r France 13570 54 10832 70
Chasselas (Fendant Blanc, Gutedel) w Switzerland? 13214 55 13318 58
Fetească Regală (Pesecká Leánka) w Romania 13136 56 2578 178
Melon de Bourgogne (Melon) w France 12,365 57 13253 59
Pedro Giménez (Pedro Jiménez) w Argentina 12,250 58 15101 54
Concord (Bull's Seedling) r United States 12238 59 30513 39
Touriga Franca (Touriga Francesa) r Portugal 11586 60 6674 94
Negroamaro (Nigroamaro, Purcinara) r Italy 11460 61 40064 31
Viognier (Viognier Vert, Vionnier) w France 11,400 62 3160 155
Carmenère (Grande Vidure) r France 11360 63 5711 108
Castelão (João Santarém, Periquita) r Portugal 11086 64 14,424 56
Trebbiano Giallo (Trebbiano di Spagna) w Italy 10,664 65 3984 130
Mencia (Jaen du Dao) r Spain 10658 66 17321 51
Touriga Nacional (Bical Tinto) r Portugal 10435 67 4263 122
Muscat Ottonel (Muscat Ottonel) w France 10234 68 12259 64
Aglianico (Aglianico del Vulture) r Italy 9963 69 9624 75
Savatiano (Aspro, Doumpraina Lefki) w Greece 9920 70 20396 44
Malvasia Bianca di Candia (M. Candia) w Italy 9891 71 42654 28
Zweigelt (Blue Zweigelt) r Austria 9847 72 7230 89
Pamid (Roşioáră) r Bulgaria 9827 73 22718 42
Fernão Pires (Maria Gomes, Molinha) w Portugal 9511 74 14545 55
Trincadeira Preta (Tinta Amarela) r Portugal 9270 75 7265 88
Pedro Ximénez (Perrum) w Spain 9243 76 47915 23
Parellada (Montona) w Spain 8847 77 11188 67
Vermentino (Favorita, Pigato) w Spain? 8617 78 5835 107
Roditis (Alepou Roditis) r Greece 8495 79 7244 ?
Xarello (Pansal, Xarel • Lo) w Spain 8393 80 10288 74
Bordo (Grana d'Oro) r United States 8287 81 3379 174
Muscat d'Hamburg r England? 8137 82 7066 93
Saperavi (Saperavi) r Georgia 8126 83 6707 96
Torrontés Riojano (Torrontél Riojano) w Argentina 8115 84 8187 81
Dornfelder (Weinsberg S 341) r Germany 8101 85 3766 134
Tsolikouri (Tsolikouri) w Georgia 7903 86 6161 102
Síria (Códega, Doña Blanca, Roupeiro) w Portugal 7898 87 2791 169
Tinto Velasco (T. de la Pámpana Blanca) r Portugal / Spain 7829 88 7898 83
Corvina Veronese (Corvina Comune) r Italy 7496 89 4781 114
Garnacha Blanca (Grenache Blanc) w Spain 7398 90 28409 40
Sylvaner (Sylvaner) w Austria 7389 91 11044 ?
Moscatel Rosada (Moscatel Rosado) w Argentina 7329 92 10656 73
Petit Verdot (Verdot) r France 7202 93 1481 235
Blue Portuguese (Portuguese) r Austria 6798 94 ? ?
Marufo (Moravia Dulce, Mourisco) r Portugal 6579 95 6339 101
Bianca (Bianka, Egri Csillagok 40) w Hungary 6462 96 2180 200
Pinotage (Perold's Hermitage x Pinot) r South Africa 6404 97 6574 98
Dolcetto (Nibièu, Nibiò, Ormeasco) r Italy 6333 98 7191 90
Grillo (Ariddu, Riddu, Rossese Bianco) w Italy 6295 99 1803 214
Tinta Barroca (Barocco, Tinta Barocca) r Portugal 6172 100 6052 103
Chelva (Forastera Blanca) w Spain 6168 101 10877 69
Inzolia (Ansonica) w Italy 6133 102 9259 76
Nebbiolo (Chiavennasca, Spanna) r Italy 5992 103 5047 112
Tannat (Harriague) r France 5940 104 5557 109
Ruby Cabernet (Cabernet Ruby) r United States 5730 105 7419 86
Croatina (Bonarda) r Italy 5700 106 3116 157
Alvarinho (Albariño) w Portugal / Spain 5523 107 5113 111
Furmint (Moslavac Bijeli, Šipon, Som) w Hungary 5276 108 3,481 141
Trebbiano d'Abruzzo (T. di Teramo) w Italy 5091 109 8435 78
Lambrusco Salamino (L. di Santa Croce) w Italy 5003 110 4147 126
Gros Manseng (Manseng Gros Blanc) w France 4995 111 2160 201
Rufete (Castellana, Tinta Pinheira) r Portugal 4833 112 3397 142
Ancellotta (Lancellotta) r Italy 4774 113 4931 119
Niagara (White Concord) w United States 4670 114 15343 52
Prieto Picudo (Prieto Picudo Tinto) r Spain 4587 115 3256 149
Listán Prieto (Criolla Chica, Misión, País) r Spain 4564 116 15532 51
Olmo grapes (Rubyred) r United States 4556 117 4153 125
Sauvignonasse (Friulano, Tai, Tuchì) w France 4449 118 5494 110
Arinto (Arinto de Bucelas, Pedernã) w Portugal 4446 119 3966 131
Pardillo (Pardilla) w Spain 4364 120 7272 87
Gaglioppo (Gaglioppo di Cirò) r Italy 4214 121 3592 138
Misket Cherven (Misket Sungurlarski) w Bulgaria 4159 122 ? ?
Baga (Tinta Bairrada) r Portugal 4108 123 6730 95
Zalema (Torrontés de Montilla) w Spain 4097 124 5969 105
Loureiro (Loureiro Blanco) w Portugal 4054 125 4932 118
Kerner (White herald) w Germany 3994 126 7111 91
Merseguera (Esquitxagos) w Spain 3946 127 7460 85
Caladoc (Kaladok) r France 3675 128 1427 240
St. Laurent (Saint Laurent) r Austria 3665 129 2370 184
Tsitska (Tsitsiko, Zizka) w Georgia 3642 130 2839 164
Cserszegi Füszeres (C. Füszeries) w Hungary 3609 131 2185 199
Mavro (Kypreiko Mavro) r Cyprus 3575 132 10969 68
Durif (Petite Sirah) r France 3557 133 1197 269
Verdicchio Bianco (Boschera) w Italy 3532 134 5043 113
Teneron (Valenciana Blanca) w Spain 3488 135 3488 140
Trousseau Noir (Trousseau, Bastardo) r France 3431 136 2120 203
Malvasia Fina (Boal, Torrontés) w Portugal 3416 137 7102 92
Sultana (Sultanina, Sultaniye) w Mediterranean 3407 138 271828 4
Negramoll (Mollar) r Spain 3193 139 3557 139
Vinhão (Sousão, Sousón, Tinta País) r Portugal 3160 140 5937 106
Băbească Neagră (Rara Neagră) r Romania / Ukraine 3122 141 3722 136
Graciano (Bovale, Tinta Miúda) r Spain 3112 142 1910 211
Carignan Blanc (Cariñena Blanca) w France 3061 143 1035 287
Aspiran Bouschet (A. Bouchet) r France 3042 144 308 432
Falanghina (Falanghina Bianca) w Italy 3037 145 1658 221
Beba (Boal de Praça) w Spain 3036 146 4762 115
Cortese (Corteis) r Italy 2953 147 3113 158
Agiorgitiko (Mavroudi Nemeas) r Greece 2905 148 2320 189
Clairette (Blanquette, Clairet) w France 2820 149 4003 129
Aramon Noir (Ugni Noir) r France 2561 150 9084 77

Varietal aromas

Each variety has specific properties that are considered typical of the variety are referred to (see also under flavorings ). But it depends on the type of winemaking whether these potential properties actually appear in the wine. With an intense Barrique they can be completely covered.

typische Rebsortenaromen

Grape variety description in wine Glossary

Two databases of the Institute for Vine Breeding Geilweilerhof in Siebeldingen (Palatinate-Germany) contain extensive information from well over 10,000 grape varieties (see also under VIVC ). Around 2,000 grape varieties are described in the glossary. Of around 1,000 of them there are under new breed a lineup. The grape varieties can also have around 5,000 Synonyms (Aliases) are searched / found. The descriptions include:

  • origin (Country) - if known
  • Synonyms (many names for one grape variety) & homonyms (a name for many grape varieties)
  • Name meaning and historical background (anecdotes, famous wines)
  • pictures of grape and sheet with around 1,000 grape varieties
  • Breeding year and breeder at new varieties
  • Pedigree / parenthood and relationships according to the latest DNA analysis
  • morphological Similar grape varieties (risk of confusion)
  • Parenting for other varieties ( Mother- or father variety)
  • Characteristics ( Maturity date. resistance or susceptibility to certain diseases)
  • typical flavorings respectively. sensory Characteristics Sweet. acid Etc.
  • Potential regarding the durability and viability of the wines pressed from it
  • Cultivation countries / areas with the vineyards in hectare

Sources and further information

With the kind permission of the Swiss biologist Dr. José Vouillamoz the standard work " Wine grapes - A complete guide to 1,368 vine varieties ”is used. A list of keywords relevant to grape varieties can be found at grapevine contain. All work and measures in the vineyard can be found at Weingarten Care, Complete lists of the numerous cellar techniques, as well as a list of the wine, sparkling wine and distillate types regulated by wine law are below winemaking contain. Comprehensive information on wine law is available at wine law,

Grape varieties colors: pixabay
World map: Der Winzer 1 - Weinbau, Ulmer Verlag 2019, 4th edition
Grape Varieties: Ursula Brühl, Doris Schneider, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI)
Aroma glasses: armin faber

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