The numerous enemies of vine or the grapevine are divided into groups microorganisms as bacteria. mushrooms and virus, such as animal Pests that are transmitted indirectly through disease transmission or directly through, for example, root damage or consequential damage such as rot Act. Besides, some illnesses are also due to lack of specific ones nutrients caused. Many diseases are of European origin, some were "imported" by America in the middle of the 19th century. That was in that order phylloxera, Real mildew (Oidium), downy mildew (Peronospora) and black rot (which were referred to as "four great plagues"), and only in the 1940s Flavescence dorée (Golden yellow yellowing).
It would be fatal to combat these diseases and pests only when they occur. Therefore, this is done today in principle by preventive measures. That's right varietal selection (Fungus-resistant PIWI varieties ), biotechnical measures such as finishing, appropriate Weingarten Care, mechanical procedures (protective grid against birds ), Use of chemical agents from the group of pesticides as well as increasingly through ecological Methods such as beneficials or disrupter, The environmentally friendly Phytosanitary Measures are parts of the Organic (organic) viticulture different shape.
In the course of millions of years of development, grape varieties have one resistance (Resistance) to their enemies like phylloxera and mildew, as well as to extreme environmental conditions such as drought, drought or frost developed. These properties are added separately new breed considered by grape varieties. Animal pests, especially insects with their eggs and larvae, are also eliminated by their natural enemies or opponents, that is by other insects. This is deliberately exploited today in the fight against pests, for example by becoming aware ladybug exposes.
In recent decades, several test methods have been developed to detect vine diseases, and in imports also quarantine to be able to identify. Related processes are ELISA. Indexing and PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction). Some (latent) diseases can also be spread by infected plant material during refining, for example the wood disease group Rugose Wood Complex, In Austria, a project was started in 1993 with the aim of certified Clones) to increase the quality in the long term. All diseases and pests are described with cause, symptom, effect and control as well as their occurrence:
As the main source, the informative and highly recommended book "Viticulture" by Ernst Vogt and Günter Schruft was used by courtesy of the publisher (Ernst Vogt, Günter Schruft: Weinbau © 2000, Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart). The eighth completely revised edition was created in cooperation with well-known wine-growing experts of the wine-growing institute Freiburg Each contains over 100 color photos, black-and-white illustrations and tables. In addition to the part "harmful organisms and vine protection", the work also contains the chapters viticulture in the world, viticulture in Germany, construction and life of the grapevine, grape varieties and grape varieties, the vine in their environment, soil science, nutrition of the vines, practical viticulture, fertilization the vine, viticulture equipment, vine processing, vine breeding, business and management, EDP in viticulture and wine law.
The State Teaching and Research Institute of Viticulture and Pomology vineyard runs the website "The Virtual Vine Doctor". On the start page, the symptoms are queried, so that a limitation is possible. The database contains malware of the most common diseases, pests, deficiency symptoms of the vine and other adverse effects on vine growth. Together with explanatory texts, the vine doctor gives an aid to the clarification of causes of illness and damage. Links on the website lead to further information and instructions to remedy the damage incurred and to avoid the causes of illness and damage. See also the topic under Organic viticulture and plant protection,
Pierce Disease: enbiotech srl
Flavesecence dorée: H. Reisenzein - AGES Vienna
Grape Wither: From Farmer Karl - Own Photo, CC BY 3.0 at , Link
Esca: By Bauer Karl - Own Work, CC BY 3.0 at , Link
Real and downy mildew: Christoph Hoyer
Grape wrapper: Todd M. Gilligan
Grapevine and wine lovers : André Mégroz
Sulfur: By Rob Lavinsky, iRocks.com - CC BY-SA 3.0 , Link