The numerous enemies of the vine or the grapevine are divided into groups microorganisms how bacteria. mushrooms and virus, such as animal Pests caused indirectly by transmission of diseases or directly by, for example, root damage or consequential damage, for example rot Act. In addition, some diseases are also lacking certain nutrients caused. Many diseases are of European origin, some were "imported" from America from the mid-19th century. That was in that order phylloxera, Real one mildew (Oidium), downy mildew (Peronospora) and black rot (which were referred to as "four great plagues"), and only in the 1940s Flavescence doree (Golden yellow yellowing).
It would be fatal to fight these diseases and pests only when they occur. That is why this is basically done today through preventive measures. That is correct varietal selection (Fungus-resistant PIWI varieties ), biotechnological measures such as finishing, appropriate Weingarten Care, mechanical processes (protective grids against birds ), Use of chemical agents from the group of pesticides as well as increasingly ecological Methods such as beneficials or disrupter, The environmentally friendly in this regard Phytosanitary Measures are part of the Organic (ecological) viticulture different shape.
In the course of the millions of years of development history, grape varieties have one resistance (Resilience) to their enemies such as phylloxera and mildew, as well as to extreme environmental conditions such as drought, drought or frost developed. These properties are specifically mentioned in new breed of grape varieties considered. Animal pests, especially insects with their eggs and larvae, are also eliminated by their natural enemies or opponents, that is, by other insects. This is used deliberately in pest control today, for example by consciously ladybug exposes.
In the past few decades, several test methods have been developed to treat vine diseases, even when imported quarantine to be able to identify. Procedures are related ELISA. Indexing and PCR (Polymerase chain reaction). Some (latent) diseases can also be spread by refined plant material during processing, for example the wood diseases group Rugose Wood Complex, In Austria, a project was started in 1993 with the aim of analyzing and selecting as healthy as possible the vine material ( certified Clones) to increase the quality in the long term. All diseases and pests are described with their cause, symptom, effect and control as well as their occurrence:
The main source, courtesy of the publisher, was the informative and highly recommended book "Weinbau" by Ernst Vogt and Günter Schruft (Ernst Vogt, Günter Schruft: Weinbau © 2000, Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart). The eighth completely revised edition was created with the collaboration of well-known wine experts from the Wine Institute Freiburg and contains over 100 color photos, black and white illustrations and tables. In addition to the section "Harmful organisms and vine protection", the work also contains the chapters of viticulture in the world, viticulture in Germany, construction and life of the vine, vine types and varieties, the vine in its environment, soil science, nutrition of the vines, practical viticulture, fertilization the vine, viticulture equipment technology, vine processing, vine breeding, business and labor management, EDP in viticulture and viticulture law.
The State Educational and Experimental Institute for Wine and Fruit Growing vineyard operates the website "The Virtual Vine Doctor". The symptoms are queried on the start page, making it possible to narrow them down. The database contains the damage patterns of the most common diseases, pests, signs of deficiency in the vine and other impairments to vine growth. Together with explanatory texts, the vine doctor provides assistance in clarifying the causes of illness and damage. Links on the website lead to further information and instructions on how to remedy the damage that has occurred and to avoid the causes of illness and damage. See also on the topic below Organic viticulture and plant protection,
Pierce Disease: enbiotech srl
Flavesecence dorée: H. Reisenzein - AGES Vienna
Grape wilt: By farmer Karl - Own photo, CC BY 3.0 at , Link
Esca: By Bauer Karl - Own work, CC BY 3.0 at , Link
Real and downy mildew: Christoph Hoyer
Grape wrapper: Todd M. Gilligan
Vine engraver and wine enthusiast : André Mégroz
Sulfur: By Rob Lavinsky, iRocks.com - CC BY-SA 3.0 , Link