The numerous enemies of the vine or the grapevine are divided into groups microorganisms as bacteria. mushrooms and virus, such as animal Pests that are indirectly transmitted by disease or directly by, for example, root damage or consequential damage such as rot Act. Besides, some illnesses are also due to lack of specific ones nutrients caused. Many diseases are of European origin, some were "imported" by America from the middle of the 19th century. That was in that order phylloxera, Real mildew (Oidium), downy mildew (Peronospora) and black rot (which were referred to as "four great plagues"), and only in the 1940s Flavescence dorée (Golden yellowing yellowing).