On angry tasting condiment and preservative that it lasts as long as Wine gives. If this is not prevented, it will ultimately always turn into vinegar. This was already in the antiquity mixed with other ingredients used as a drink. A medical application for respiratory diseases and indigestion is already through Hippocrates (460-377 BC) handed down. The Roman author Columella (1st century) reports in his work "De re rustica" about the production of vinegar from figs, barley and wine. Vinegar has played a role in many cultures. In the Bible vinegar is mentioned as a staple food, with the Egyptians there was "Hequa" (vinegar drink from barley beer), with the Babylonians vinegar water was a refreshing drink that Phoenicians exhibited cider her sour shekar, the Greeks used him in sacrificial ceremonies, the Roman legionaries protected themselves with the Posca (Vinegar water) before colds and in Japan you know the traditional Tamago-Su (rice vinegar), in which a raw egg is dissolved. In the Middle Ages, herb vinegar was considered a remedy, report about it Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1179) and Nostradamus. The Pestessig was used against this disease.
The causes of its origin were unknown until the middle of the 19th century. The French chemist Antoine Laurent de Lavoisier (1743-1794) claimed in 1793 that this was a oxidative Process. The German botanist Friedrich Traugott Kützing (1807-1892) correctly named 1837 microorganisms as the cause. The French chemist Louis was only able to do this in 1868 Pasteur (1822-1895) prove and identified as the cause bacteria, In the simplest case, "standing" any alcoholic liquid is sufficient. When such liquids are exposed to air, wild acetic acid bacteria often settle on their own. This is how the first vinegars came about by chance. The process is often referred to as acetic acid fermentation, but is actually one fermentative Process because unlike the fermentation Oxygen is necessary. Many alcoholic liquids can serve as a basis. These are beer, Cider, malt stock, rice wine. grape or wine.
According to the Austrian Food Law, vinegar is a liquid that is suitable for human consumption, especially for acidifying and preserving food, either through the process of double fermentation, namely that of alcoholic and vinegar fermentation or by diluting acetic acid suitable for pleasure with water (acid vinegar). The total acidity calculated as acetic acid must be at least 5 g in 100 ml, for wine vinegar at least 6 g in 100 ml. The alcohol content may amount to a maximum of 0.5%, for wine vinegar a maximum of 1.5% vol. The quality of the vinegar depends not only on its content of acetic acid, but also on the starting material and any additives that usually change the taste. In addition to acetic acid, vinegar contains only those organic acids that come from the raw material used or are formed during production.
The oldest procedure is called open or Orléans procedure. The initial liquid is inoculated with bacteria. The bacteria would also settle automatically from the air and can also get through Essigfliege be transmitted. The fermentation process is left to its own devices in open kettles in a warm environment. After a while, an as forms on the liquid surface mother of vinegar designated gelatinous, stringy epidermis (also vinegar) from bacteria. The acetic acid bacteria ( Acetobacter ) belonging to oxidize alcohol acetic acid, where too Acetic acid ethyl ester (Ethyl acetate) is formed. The German vinegar producer Johann Sebastian Schützenbach introduced the rapid vinegar process in the middle of the 19th century. Floating carrier material (wood shavings or plastic balls) on which the bacteria adhere is used. As a result, more bacteria develop and the process is faster.
Depending on the technology, production takes two to three days in the venturi process (mixing of liquids) or within 24 hours in turbine systems. The starting product is fermented at 28 to 30 ° Celsius and gassed with air. As a rule of thumb, the alcohol content of a wine also gives the same amount of acetic acid (12% alcohol content = 12% acetic acid). Vinegar or table vinegar contains 3 to 10% acid, the diluted edible vinegar essence contains 60 to 80%. Wine vinegar is a great asset in the production of dishes or for direct enjoyment. Sweet and sour drinking vinegars from highly noble quality wines as aperitif or digestif served, matured sherry vinegars used in the kitchen or the Italian specialty balsamic used as a refinement of meat, cheese or dessert. The combination of vinegar in salads and wine is problematic and can lead to an "acid explosion" in the mouth. See also under Wine with food,
Complete lists of the numerous vinification measures or cellar techniques, as well as the various types of wine, sparkling wine and distillate regulated by wine law are under the keyword winemaking contain. There is extensive wine law information under the keyword wine law,