This seasoning and preservative is there at least as long as Wine, Because this is, if you do not prevent it, ultimately always to vinegar. Vinegar has been in the antiquity used as a beverage mixed with other ingredients. A medical application for respiratory diseases and indigestion is already through Hippocrates (460-377 BC). The Roman author Columella (1st cent.) Reports in his work "De re rustica" on the vinegar production of figs, barley and wine. Vinegar has played a role in many cultures. In the Bible Vinegar is mentioned as a staple food, in the Egyptians there was "hequa" (vinegar drink from barley beer), in the Babylonians Vinegar water was a refreshment drink that Phoenicians turned off cider their sour Shekar, the Greeks used it at sacrificial ceremonies, the Roman legionaries protected themselves with the Posca (Vinegar water) from colds and in Japan you know the traditional Tamago-Su (rice vinegar), in which a raw egg is dissolved. In the Middle Ages herb vinegar was considered a remedy, report on it Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1179) and Nostradamus. Of the Pestessig was used against this disease.
The causes of the genesis were unknown until the middle of the 19th century. The French chemist Antoine Laurent de Lavoisier (1743-1794) claimed in 1793 that this was a oxidative Process is. The German botanist Friedrich Traugott Kützing (1807-1892) correctly named 1837 microorganisms as cause. But only in 1868 could the French chemist Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) prove and identified as cause bacteria, In the simplest case, "leaving" any alcoholic liquid is sufficient. When such liquids are exposed to air, wild acetic acid bacteria often settle spontaneously. This is how the first vinegars came about by accident. The process is often referred to as acetic acid fermentation, but is actually a fermentative Process, because unlike that fermentation Oxygen is needed. As a basis, many alcoholic liquids can serve. These are beer, Cider, malt, rice wine. grape or wine.
According to the Austrian food law, vinegar is understood to mean a liquid suitable for human consumption, in particular for acidifying and preserving food, either through the process of double fermentation fermentation, namely the alcoholic and the vinegar fermentation or by diluting acetic acid suitable for consumption purposes with water (acid vinegar). The total acidity calculated as acetic acid must be at least 5 g in 100 ml, for wine vinegar at least 6 g in 100 ml. Of the alcohol content maxiumal may amount to 0.5%, with wine vinegar a maximum of 1.5% vol. The nature of the vinegar depends not only on its content of acetic acid, but also on the starting material and any additives. Apart from acetic acid, vinegar contains only those organic acids which originate from the starting material used or are formed during production.
The oldest method is called open or Orléans method. The starting liquid is inoculated with bacteria. The bacteria would also settle automatically from the air and can also by the Essigfliege be transmitted. The fermentation process is left to itself in open vessels in a warm environment. After some time, one of the liquid surface forms as mother of vinegar designated gelatinous, string-taking Kahmhaut (also vinegar cream) from bacteria. The acetic acid bacteria ( Acetobacter ) oxidize alcohol acetic acid, where too Acetic acid ethyl ester (Ethyl acetate) is formed. The German vinegar producer Johann Sebastian Schützenbach introduced the rapid vinegar method in the middle of the 19th century. Floating carrier material (wood chips or plastic pellets) is used on which the bacteria adhere. As a result, more bacteria and thus faster process develop.
Depending on the technology, production takes two to three days in the Venturi process (mixing liquids) or even within 24 hours in turbine plants. The starting material is fermented at 28 to 30 ° C and gassed with air. As a rule of thumb, the alcohol content of a wine also gives the same amount of acetic acid (12% alcohol = 12% acetic acid). Edible or teal vinegar contains 3 to 10% acid, which only dilutes edible vinegar essence 60 to 80%. Wine vinegar is a great addition to the production of food or even for direct enjoyment. Sweet and sour drinking vinegars from high noble predicate wines as aperitif or digestif Served, ripened sherry vinegar used in the kitchen or the Italian specialty balsamic used as a refinement of meat, cheese or dessert. The combination of vinegar in salads and wine, however, is problematic and can lead to an "acid explosion" in the mouth. See also under Wine to food,
Complete listings of the numerous vinification measures and cellar techniques, as well as the various wine-regulated wine, sparkling wine and distillate types are under the keyword winemaking contain. Comprehensive information on wine law is available under the keyword wine law,