Besides, it has a decisive influence on the quality of the wine soil type. varieties and art of the winemaker that climate, To a considerable extent, wines sometimes reflect the weather-specific peculiarities of a year, which are often very specific in terms of weather. In this context one speaks of age-related typicality, for example, wines can be a “vintage typical botrytis "Or due to heat periods a" toasted note " exhibit. In warm growing areas, the fluctuations are usually not as strong, and the deviations are therefore less. In contrast, in cooler growing areas, the weather differences can be considerable, for example in the Italian regions Piedmont and Tuscany, in Austria the wine region Wachau and the wine regions in the state Styria, the German region Moselle, as well as the French regions Burgundy. Bordeaux. Alsace and Loire,
From Bordeaux comes the statement that the châteaux do not produce good wine, but only good vintages or even only good bottles. Climate and weather conditions are not uncommon for very large areas and even countries within a year (although of course the climate does not adhere to national borders), but the quality can vary from area to area, from place to place and even from location vary greatly in location within the year. One can therefore only speak very generally of a certain vintage quality and should rather understand it only as a relatively rough guide and not as a blanket for all producers.
In a "low vintage", the wines usually have fewer total extract (especially at flavorings ) and alcohol content, As a rule, such wines mature more quickly and reach their climax or earlier maturity, The type of expansion also has a major impact. Cry with barrel aging respectively. Barrique usually have a longer one durability than those in the steel tank. Special vintages were mentioned in antiquity, to the oldest wines the famous one counts Falernian “Opimians” from 121 BC. However, mostly only the very bad (due to weather, wars, pests or other catastrophes) and the particularly good years were documented. In addition, it was previously common to simply add the new vintage in a barrel.
The best wines of very special years are considered poetic Wine of the century designated. A year that was also significant from a historical point of view was, for example, the legendary 1811er (Further crescences are under oldest wines mentioned). The description of the following years and wines comes partly from the documentation "Vintage Chronicle, Wine in the Last 2000 Years" by Peter H. Jordan. This is also a brief history of viticulture. The comments are often related to certain wine-growing regions and, of course, cannot in principle apply to entire countries and all wines. Unless otherwise stated, they mainly refer to Germany and Austria:
121 BC BC - the first documented vintage of wine history, the famous one dates from this year Falernerwein "Opimianer"
306, 312, 411, 545, 585, 604 - crop failures
765 - blessed wine year, thanksgiving service of King Pippin III. (714-768) - father Charlemagne
900 to 1350 - this long period is called Medieval warm period referred to, which followed a very long cold period from 1450 to 1850, the so-called Little ice age
987 - very hot and dry year, complete crop failure
1150 - Crisis years on the Moselle and Rhine, probably due to overproduction due to enormous expansion of vineyards due to the warm climatic phase led to a large wave of emigrants from winegrowers primarily to the Carpathian region
1185 - wonderful wine in large quantities, start of reading August 1st
1293, 1295, 1297 - excellent wine in abundance
1343 - a wine from Lindenfels-Pfalz was still served in Heidelberg Castle in the 17th century
1346 - disaster year, extreme frost in mid-September
1407 - Heavy winter frosts, the Rhine frozen over, many vineyards destroyed
1437 - Heavy frosts and extreme winter destroy the vineyards on the Vistula
1443 - extremely acidic and inedible wine, therefore it was used for mortar when building the Viennese St. Stephen's Cathedral used; see also under Reif biter
1450 - After a warm phase from around 900 to 1350, the so-called Little ice age that lasted in different phases until about 1850
1484 - very good vintage with huge amounts, over a million liters of old wine was poured into Lake Constance to make room in the barrels
1485 to 1488 - four-year period of bad harvests and bad, sour wines
1525 - a good vintage, the wine was demonstrably served in the Strasbourg hospital cellar in 1730
1526 - in the Burgenland community Donnerskirchen (Austria) one Trockenbeerenauslese pressed, which was still edible after 326 years and as Lutherwein became famous
1529 - poor vintage with sour wines - see also under Turks wine
1530 - bad vintage, grapes very acidic, wine almost inedible
1540 - a millennium year; it was so hot that the Rhine dried up; a Würzburger stone was drunk 421 years later and was edible
1606 - very good vintage, hot summer, great Tokaj
1628 - as bad as it has not been for 100 years, even the vinegar was spoiled with it
1632 - very bad year, unusual heat and drought from mid-July to mid-September, many vineyards destroyed by the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648)
1645 - bad vintage; in the "Heilbronner Chronik" it is reported that the "sour wine can be called 'the French'."
1659 - first by the wine pioneer Jan van Riebeeck (1619-1677) produced in South Africa with 15 liters of muscatel wine
1679 - a Madeira this vintage with intact original cork was made by Michael in 1999 Broadbent tasted and found very good
1703 - very bad year, the cooper Hans Jakob Erni was executed because he "improved" the bad wines from 1701 and 1703 and some people died from it
1709 - extreme frost in the French Pays Nantais region on the Loire, which caused many vines to freeze (see below Muscadet )
1726 - excellent wines in abundance
1727 - a great vintage in Germany in terms of quantity and quality; the so-called "Rüdesheimer Apostelwein "(Rheingau) from this year is stored in the" Bremer Ratskeller "
1735 - a Rheingau wine of this vintage from the winery Schönborn Castle was auctioned in 1987 for around € 27,000
1748 - a Johannisberg Castle Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) served for his 66th birthday and a copy of this wine was still edible in 1985 at the age of 237 years, Giacomo Casanova (1725-1798) received a 1748 Rhine wine in Cologne
1766 - excellent vintage, was demonstrably drunk in 1780
1775 - very good vintage with magnificent wine, first botrytis late harvest in Johannisberg Castle with the famous story of Spätlesereiter
1776 - very good year, wines from the years 1748, 1775 and 1776 were still offered in Hochheim in 1830 as "fine, old vintages"
1786 u. 1787 - bad wine, "only for servants, maids and day laborers"
1794 - supposedly first Eiswein in Germany (Franconia)
1804 - exceptionally good, mature vintage
1811 - a as comet vintages, Napoleon wine and Wine of the century designated legendary vintage in many growing areas of Europe; are to be emphasized Château d'Yquem and that of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe mentioned famous " 1811er ", A Riesling from Bassermann-Jordan
1816 and 1817 - blatant miss years; the grapes froze before ripening, 1816 went down in history in the northeast of America and in the west and south of Europe as "year without summer", in Germany called the year of misery "eighteen hundred hundreds"
1821 - Missing year, almost nothing was harvested
1830 - Frost year (the end of a very long frost period from 1799 to 1830), which also made the cultivation of the frost-hardy Riesling forced, there was the first documented Eiswein in Germany from the 1829 harvest near Bingen (Rheinhessen)
1840 and 1841 - the 1840 vintage is by George Saintsbury (1845-1933) in his famous "Notes of a Cellarbook" as very good, but in 1841 as bad
1846 - documented ice wine in Germany
1857 - very good vintage, exceptionally hot summer, the wines are characterized as "summer delight potion, as a mild, wild barrel potion" for the Fuder (approx. 1,000 liters) Scharzhofberger (Moselle) were paid up to 13,000 thaler, for the best Moselle wines up to 15,000 thaler
1858 - very good vintage (see also under comet vintages ), documented Eiswein on Johannisberg Castle in Germany
1861 - very good vintage (see also under comet vintages )
1864, 1865, 1867 and 1870 - some exceptionally good years with Century wines; this period went down in history as the so-called "golden Bordeaux era" (when in June 1940 the German occupants of the wine cellar of the famous restaurant La Tour d'Argent was robbed in Paris, these vintages in particular were saved by walling in a niche in the cellar just before)
1870 - above-average vintage, the average yield from 1870 to 1879 in Germany was 17 hectoliters per hectare
1877 to 1883 - consistently bad vintages with mostly cold, wet summers
1880 - documented Eiswein in Germany
1886 - for the first time in many years, a very good vintage with low harvest quantities
1888 - miserable year, the vintage is described by the poem "Der 88er Wein"
1890 - documented Eiswein in Germany
1893 - an outstanding year with many Century wines, Competitor to 1811, excellent noble rot, the best Fuder Scharzhofberger (Moselle) cost 10,500 marks (10.50 marks per liter), German wines of this vintage were awarded the world's best at the world exhibition
1900 - very good and sought-after vintage, a so-called "picture book summer"
1911 - very good vintage (see also under comet vintages ), blazing hot summer ( drought year ), a Riesling selection from the Rheingau was tasted in 1996
1921 - long and very hot summer, some fruit trees bloomed a second time, outstanding wines in Germany (here the term was used widow wine used) and France-Bordeaux
1926 - very good vintage, especially France (Bordeaux)
1928 - very good vintage, especially France (Bordeaux)
1929 - very good vintage, hot, long summer in many parts of Europe, especially many top wines from Bordeaux (a "glorious year")
1937 - some Wines of the century in France-Burgundy and Germany; in Germany with outstanding, extremely long-lived Rieslings from the Rhine and Moselle, excellent quality wines (late harvest, dry berry selection - see under Steinberg ), at the baptism in Neustadt (Palatinate) the wine was called "bomber" (two years later they fell); in Burgundy there were top qualities from Pinot Noir, for example from Domaine de la Romanée-Conti
1945 - very good vintage, many exceptional wines - the "Friedensjahr-Weine"; see examples below Wine of the century
1947 - very good vintage, especially France (Bordeaux), also in Austria
1949 - very good vintage, especially in France (Bordeaux, Burgundy), partly also in Austria and Germany
1951 - very bad vintage due to heavy rains in May and early summer, extremely bad in Bordeaux (Michael Broadbent in the "New Great Vintage Wine Book": Terrible, the worst post-war vintage and one of the most disastrous ever ")
1953 - very good vintage, in France (Bordeaux) and in Germany for fine sweet wines
1956 - a bad year in many countries; extremely low temperatures down to minus 30 ° Celsius and frost in many European countries (e.g. France, Germany, Austria), which also led to the destruction of many vineyards
1959 - century vintage, many exceptional wines in Germany and France
1961 - a great vintage worldwide with long-lived wines, especially in Bordeaux but also in Spain, Italy and overseas (Australia, California)
1966 - a century vintage, especially France-Burgundy and also Germany
1968 - large crops of moderate quality in Austria, poor vintage with low must levels in Germany
1970 - Record harvest in Austria with acidic wines, great ice wine year in Germany
1976 - long heat wave and drought in Europe, partially Wines of the century, Excellent vintage in Germany with botrytis wines (the wines were referred to as "sun swallowers" or "bikini wines" - because the harvest was also carried out by "lightly dressed" staff)
1976 to 1984 - Austria was established in 1985 wine scandal uncovered, some producers have been crying diethylene glycol admitted, the first vintage concerned was 1976, strengthened the years 1980 to 1984
1979 - vintage above average in Germany, long-lived wines in Austria - special qualities in Burgenland and Styria
1982 - very good vintage, especially France (a "miracle year" in Bordeaux), Germany's largest wine harvest of all time, also a record harvest in Austria
1983 - Germany's second largest wine harvest of all time, the 1983 Grange became famous by the Australian winery Penfolds
1984 - Cold weather in spring, bad vintage in Germany and Austria with very few good wines
1985 - very good vintage, especially France (Bordeaux, Rhône), some Wines of the century, severe frost damage in Austria, had a negative impact on 1986
1986 - The Chernobyl year (accident in the nuclear reactor), very good vintage, especially France (Bordeaux) and wines from the appellations Montrachet in Burgundy
1987 - late frost damage in the spring, late flowers, still a good vintage
1988 - large crops with different qualities
1989 - very good vintage, especially in France (Bordeaux) with alcohol and tannin-rich wines
1990 - outstanding vintage, applies to many wines in Europe and overseas
Only after going over to wine in bottles began to fill up, the differentiation into vintages. From around the beginning of the 19th century, records of monasteries provided precise information about each year. Today, attempts are made to present the quality of a vintage broken down by country, region and area. This should provide clues for tasting, wine review or buying wine. Vintage tables are of course not static and are by no means valid for all eternity, but must be corrected annually to reflect the development of the wines through the aging respectively. bottle aging to consider. Society International Wine & Food Society published one of the first year tables in 1935. Since then, an updated table has been published annually. The wine evaluation is the responsibility of a specially commissioned committee, in which three Masters-of-Wine-members are represented.
A vintage table can only be a rough guide. Even within a small area, the wines are rarely of uniform quality. A good example is 1964, when a generalization for the quality of all wines in a country (specifically Bordeaux-France) would be wrong. This year there was heavy rainfall during the main harvest season. Those wineries that harvested before the rain achieved excellent results, such as Château Latour, Many others like Château Beychevelle. Château Calon-Ségur. Château Lafite-Rothschild and Château Mouton-Rothschild, harvested (too) late and produced more thin, weak body wines, the peak of which was already exceeded after a few years.
For some producers or areas, special vintages are mentioned. These are Barbaresco. Bardolino. Barolo. Brunello di Montalcino. Château Haut-Brion. Château Lafite-Rothschild. Château Latour. Château Le Pin. Château Mouton-Rothschild. Châteauneuf-du-Pape. Château Palmer. Château Petrus. Château d'Yquem. Chianti Classico. Côte Rôtie. Opus One. Penfolds Grange. Sassicaia and Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, These are regularly among the best and most expensive wines in the world, for the at Auctions highest prices are achieved. See also under oldest wines and Wine of the century as well as under Records,