One of the approximately 30 American species or Wild vines with full botanical name Vitis rotundifolia Michx. In the name is the French botanist André Michaux (1746-1802) honored. It is the only species in the vine sub-genus Muscadinia. So it does not count as the other American and Asian species, as well as the European Vitis vinifera to the vine subgenus Vitis. Strictly speaking, the name should therefore be Muscadinia rotundifolia . However, since this (wrong) name is used in most sources, it is also in the wine Glossary so specified. Trivial synonyms are Bird Grape, Bullace Grape, Bullit Grape, Currant Grape, Muscadine Grape, Roanoke, Southern Fox Grape and Vigne Musquée.
The Muscadinia species is divided into three varieties. The Vitis rotundifolia Michx. var. munsoniana is on Florida limited. The Vitis rotundifolia Michx. var. rotundifolia populates the southeastern district of the United States from Indiana to Texas, It thrives best where the cotton grows, in bushes, along rivers, in swamps, but also on sandy valley floors. And the Vitis rotundifolia Michx. var. popenoei with the trivial synonym Totoloche Grape thrives especially in the subtropical and tropical climate. It occurs in central Mexico, as well as in some Central American countries such as Belize and Guatemala. By the way, the Popenoei variety was previously considered a separate species. There are discussions about raising the subgenus Muscadinia to the genus, as well as replacing the current division into three varieties with leadership of three species.
Since all Muscadinia varieties have a different set of chromosomes (2n = 40) than the species of the subgenus Vitis (2n = 38), one is crossing with all Europeans Vines, but also with the American species or varieties of the subgenus Vitis very difficult or impossible. The Nodien (Knots) are without diaphragm (Partition) that tendrils unbranched, the berries are thrown off individually when ripe. The thick-skinned, dark berries have a high proportion of polyphenols ( anthocyanins and resveratrol ). The berries and the wine made from them have a strawberry aroma and Foxton on. As early as the 16th century, Muscadinia grapes were used to produce port-like wines.
The enormous resistance to diseases and pests was Harold P. Olmo (1909-2006) recognized. This is especially true for fungal diseases and insects of all kinds. The vine has a perfect one resistance against the phylloxera, and against Nodositäten and tuberosities, as well as against nematodes (Roundworms) and the vine disease Pierce Disease, Grafting is unfortunately impossible, as Vinifera cuttings are rejected by Rotundifolia substrates and do not grow together with them. A disadvantage is the low tolerance to lime and lack frost hardiness, Today the vine is becoming increasingly interesting as a crossing partner. Resistance to pierce disease is particularly important in the warm, southern United States. Therefore, over 300 Muscadinia varieties of different berry colors are cultivated in these countries.
New varieties with Vitis rotundifolia genes are Aurora (2) Carlos. Cowart. Dixieland. Doreen. Fry. Higgins. Hunt. jumbo. Magnolia. Noble. Shelves and Scuppernong, See also under American vines and Vines systematics,
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