The vine subgenus Vitis subg. Vitis is divided into an American, an Asian and a European group according to geographical occurrence. As a result of the ice age, there is probably only one species in the European group, Vitis vinifera , under which all wild and domesticated grape varieties of the European grapevine are subsumed. The name means the "wine-bearing vine".
There are two subspecies among them. The subspecies Vitis vinifera subspec. sylvestris is the wild stem form of today's noble vines. It has been used prehistorically, but is irrelevant in today's viticulture. The second subspecies Vitis vinifera subspec. vinifera (obsolete name Vitis vinifera ssp. sativa) is a cultivated breed that has gradually been bred by humans. This species is understood to mean all around 10,000 cultivated European varieties, of which only a few hundred are of importance.
The wild subspecies is also often called Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris Gmelin (also called Rheinische Wildrebe). The name part "sylvestris" means "living in the wilderness". The last part of the name refers to the German botanist Johann Georg Gmelin (1709-1755), who separated this subspecies for the first time. This species is diocese (dioecious); that is, there are male and female plants with unisexual flowers. The term "secondary unisexual" means that the species is originally bisexual in its genetics, but one gender is suppressed. Their area stretches from the Caucasus to the southern Mediterranean and north to the Danube floodplains near Lobau Wien (Austria) and Germany to the Rhine Valley.
A regional form...