The community in the area Cote de Nuits in the Burgundy was already known under the name "Vaoa" at the beginning of the 7th century. From the 9th century it belonged to the Prieuré Saint-Vivant monastery of the Order of Benedictine, In 1232 vineyards were donated to the monks. In 1651 the location "Le Cloux" was renamed "La Romanée" because Roman ruins had been discovered nearby. This small location with less than one hectare then developed into one of the most famous Burgundian vineyards. As in many Burgundian communities, the name of the best location was added to the community name in 1866.
The vineyards cover a total of 156 hectares of vineyards. The ground consists of a special mixture of white oolite (small mineral balls cemented by a chalky, clayey binder), marl-containing limestone and brown-colored loamy-chalky layers. The six Grands Crus have cult status and are called La Grande Rue (1.4 ha), La Tâche (6 ha), Richebourg (8 ha), La Romanée (0.84 ha), Romanée-Conti (1.8 ha) and Romanée-Saint-Vivant (10 ha). La Tâche and Romanée-Conti are fully owned by the winery Domaine de la Romanée-Conti, The red wines are mainly made from Pinot Noir with shares if necessary Pinot Liébault and Pinot gris pressed and count among the absolute top wines in Burgundy.
The 14th Premiers Crus comprise a total of 57 hectares of vineyards. These are Au Dessus des Malconsorts (1.1 ha), Aux Brûlées (4.5 ha), Aux Malconsorts (5.9 ha), Aux Reignots (1.6 ha), Clos des Réas (2.1 ha), Cros Parentoux (1 ha), En Orveaux (1.8 ha), La Croix Rameau (0.6 ha), Les Beaux Monts (11.4 ha), Les Chaumes (6.5 ha), Les Gaudichots (0, 8 ha), Les Petits Monts (3.7 ha), Les Rouges du Dessus (2.6 ha) and Les Suchots (12 ha).
The other wines are marketed under the Village appellation Vosne-Romanée . As a specialty, the village wines from the neighboring community are allowed Flagey-Echezeaux (which is not classified as AOC) use the AOC designation Vosne. Well-known producers are Domaine Robert Arnoux, Bichot (Domaine du Clos Frantin), Sylvain Cathiard, Domaine Jean Grivot, Jayer, Domaine Michel Gros, Engel, Alain Hudelot-Noellat, Domaine Leroy, Domaine Méo-Camuzet, Mongeard-Mugneret, Domaine Armelle et Bernard Rion and Domaine de la Romanée-Conti,