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See below geology,

Science of the structure, composition and structure of the earth's crust (earth = Grch. Ge), its physical properties and its development history as well as the processes that shape it. The term was first used in 1778 by the Swiss meteorologist Jean-André Deluc (1727-1817); previously geognosy was common. The earth's crust consists of three different rock formations. These are crystalline or solidification rocks, sedimentary or layered rocks and metamorphic or transformed rocks.

Geology - rocks (igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks, transformation rocks)

Crystalline or solidification rocks

These are caused by cooling and solidification. The deep rocks (also called Plutonite) are formed when rising magma slowly cools long before reaching the surface of the earth and mineralized in large crystals. The most common deep crystalline rocks are granite, mica schist and gneiss. When molten magma cools closer to the surface or in the vent of an extinct volcano, it crystallizes in fine and fine crystals due to the faster cooling processes, and hard, dense solidification stones such as basalt or obsidian form. In the case of effusion rocks (volcanic rocks), liquid magma eruptively emerges as lava on the surface of the earth to cool off in water or in the air. Gas-filled tufa rocks result...

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