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See below geology,

Science of structure, composition and structure of the Earth's crust (Earth = Ge), its physical properties and history of development as well as the processes that shape them. The term was first used in 1778 by the Swiss meteorologist Jean-André Deluc (1727-1817); before, geognosy was in use. The earth's crust consists of three different rock formations. These are crystalline or solidified rocks, sedimentary or stratified rocks and metamorphic or deformed rocks.

Geology - rocks (igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks, transformation rocks)

Crystalline or solidification rocks

These were created by cooling and solidification. The plutonic rocks (plutonites) are formed when ascending magma slowly cools down long before it reaches the surface of the earth and is then mineralized in large crystals. The most common crystalline plutonic rocks are granite, mica schist and gneiss. If molten magma is cooled closer to the surface of the earth or in the vent of an extinct volcano, it crystallizes in fine and fine crystals due to the faster cooling processes. Hard, dense solidification rocks such as basalt or obsidian are formed. In the eruption rocks (volcanic rocks), liquid magma ignites eruptively as lava to the earth's surface to cool in the water or in the air. From the eruption...

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