Third largest canton of the Switzerland with the capital Sion (French Sion). In 2007, scientists from the University of Basel found out that here already between 800 and 600 BC. Were cultivated vines. Today, the vineyards extend over 50 kilometers from the German-speaking Upper Valais to the French-speaking Lower Valais along the Rhone at an altitude of 450 to 650 meters. Those of Visperterminen in upper Valais even considerably higher at 1,100 meters. The local vineyard Riebe is the highest vineyard Central Europe. Most of the vineyards are located on the right, south-facing Rhône bank from Martigny to Leuk. Smaller areas are located between Lake Geneva and the Rhône knee near Martigny. The high-walled vineyards on steep slopes are mostly terraced some of them as so-called "shelves" cut horizontally into the slope. Due to the extreme Tilt count individual surfaces to the steepest vineyards Europe. There are lime, gneiss, slate and alluvial soils.