The Wine consists of 70 to 90% pure water. The second largest share is ethanol (Alcohol type with the largest proportion), which in turn contains the majority of water, with 7 to 15% vol depending on the type of wine alcohol content; for special wines up to 20% vol and more. The other substances in the wine form the total extract (see an overall list there). The water in ground results from the Rainfall and an artificial one, if applicable irrigation, The right amount of water is an important prerequisite for the growth of the vine and plays at the photosynthesis an essential role. It is not only the soil water, but also that humidity significant. The plant tissue consists of at least 80% water.
at water stress (Lack of water) becomes the regulating hormone abscisic acid educated. At high temperatures it happens with the vines to heat stress, To extreme climatic conditions such as drought have certain autochthonous Grape varieties adapted - they are xerophilous (Drought-loving). Water is also of central importance as a soil solution (adhesive water) with the dissolved therein nutrients, A balance between Water storage capacity and water discharge in the soil is very important for orderly growth. Thunderstorms can be particularly associated with hail cause great damage in the vineyard.
Water was always allowed, but also illegal wine glider. in the antique In Greece and Rome, it was customary in noble circles to mix wine with water. Drinking undiluted wine was considered a symbol of unculture and barbarism. The Roman poet reports very colorfully about the drinking and dining habits of that time Petronius in his work Satyricon, In the Middle Ages, wine was a healthier drink than water because the well water in the cities was contaminated with health, due to the waste water. Again and again water became illegally wine adulteration (Pantschen) used by "stretching". At the Weingenuss you should out health Always the same amount of water / Mineral water drink.
The use of water in the winemaking is particularly widespread overseas. In the Anglican language area this is known as "Black Snake Fining"; the "black snake" means the water hose. Especially in hot areas, the vines often receive too little water, which leads to dried grapes or too much Alcohol- and sugar content can lead. However, the fermentation conditions for sugar-rich must are difficult. This is achieved by adding Waser grape, for mash or for Wine balanced accordingly. Adding water to the wine will also make a alcohol reduction reached.
In the United States the addition of water up to 35% of the total amount is permitted. However, this is limited to 7% plus 1.5% tolerance for export wines to the EU countries. Within the EU is according to EU Regulation as a rule, the addition of water to the wine is not permitted. All approved oenological processes and treatments exclude the addition of water, unless there is a special need for what is subject to notification or approval. A irrigation soil is common in many southern countries. Within the EU is that only with exceptions for example extreme weather conditions possible.
All tools, work and measures in the vineyard during the growth cycle can be found at Weingarten Care, Complete lists of the numerous cellar techniques, as well as a list of wine, sparkling wine and distillate types regulated by wine law are under the keyword winemaking contain. There is extensive wine law information under the keyword wine law,