The Wine consists of 70 to 90% pure water. The second largest share is ethanol (Alcohol with the largest share), which in turn contains most of the water, with depending on the type of wine 7 to 15% vol alcohol content; for special wines up to 20% vol and more. The other substances in the wine form the total extract (see there a total listing). The water in the ground arises from the Rainfall and an optional artificial one irrigation, Water in the right amount is an important prerequisite for the growth of vine and plays at the photosynthesis an essential role. It is not only the soil water, but also the humidity significant. The plant tissue consists of at least 80% water.
at water stress (Lack of water) becomes the regulatory hormone abscisic acid educated. At high temperatures it comes in the vines to heat stress, In extreme climatic conditions like drought have certain autochthonous Grape varieties adapted - they are xerophilous (Drought-loving). An equally central importance of water as a soil solution (adhesive water) with the dissolved therein nutrients, A balance between Water storage capacity and water discharge in the soil is very important for orderly growth. Thunderstorms can be especially associated with hail cause great damage in the vineyard.
Water was always allowed, but also unauthorized Weinbgleiter. in the antique It was customary in Greece and Rome to mix wine with water. Drinking undiluted wine was considered a sign of ignorance and barbarism. About the drinking and dining at that time very colorful reports of the Roman poet Petronius in his work Satyricon, In the Middle Ages, wine was a healthier drink than water, because the well water was contaminated, especially in the cities due to the wastewater hazardous to health. Again and again, water was also illegally wine adulteration (Pantschen) used by "stretching". At the Weingenuss you should go out health Always drink the same amount of water / mineral water.
The use of water in the winemaking is especially widespread overseas. In the Anglican-speaking world this is called "Black Snake Fining"; with the "black snake" is meant the water hose. Especially in hot areas, the grapevines often get too little water, resulting in dried grapes or too high Alcohol- and sugar content can lead. Now, however, the fermentation conditions for sugar-rich cider are difficult. This is done by adding Waser to the grape to mash or even to Wine balanced accordingly. By adding water to the wine will also be one alcohol reduction reached.
In the United States An addition of water up to 35% of the total quantity is permitted. However, this is limited to 7% plus 1.5% tolerance for export wines to EU countries. Within the EU is according to EU Regulation usually the addition of water to the wine is not allowed. All approved oenological practices and treatments exclude the addition of water unless there is a particular need for what is required for notification or authorization. A irrigation Soil is widely used in many southern countries. Within the EU is that only with exceptions for example extreme weather conditions possible.
All aids, works and measures in the vineyard during the growth cycle one finds below Weingarten Care, Complete listings of the numerous cellar techniques, as well as a list of the wine-regulated wine, sparkling wine and distillate types are under the keyword winemaking contain. Comprehensive information on wine law is available under the keyword wine law,