Suitability of a region for the viniculture that can be measured by objective criteria. Important criteria are climate and Weather for the prosperity of vines in the course of growth cycle have eminent significance. The exposition (Direction of sunshine) or alignment of the Rows of vines plays an extremely important role, with one hillside with appropriate Tilt the effect is still positively reinforced. In warmer, dry areas are southeast to east slopes, in climatic border areas with heat deficits but sufficient rainfall South to southwest expositions are optimal. The optimum temperature for the growth of the vine is according to research in Geisenheim between 25 and 28 ° C. Towards the end of the Maturity date it should be between 15 and 20 ° C to get an optimal physiological maturity the grapes to reach. Sunny days alternate with cooler nights in terms of balance sugar and acid advantageous. Just before the vintage Heavy precipitation is undesirable because of risk of dilution.
Vines growing in cool climates usually produce wines with less alcohol content and more acid than in a warm climate. A cold winter is required in the resting phase of the vine to enable this one to regenerate the life force hibernation, as well as disease-causing microorganisms and kill pests. The required rainfall amounts are of different conditions like Water storage capacity and water discharge dependent. This in turn is related to the soil conditions. Grapevines are less fruitful soil types instructed instructed as annual crops. It is not uncommon for vineyards with very poor soils to grow quality wines. Sufficient supply of nutrients is very important though. Height humidity especially in conjunction with high temperatures can fungal diseases favor. The minimum climatic requirements:
However, these criteria alone are not enough to determine the viability of a site beyond doubt. There are locations that are unsuitable for winegrowing despite meeting many conditions. Most of the most important wine-growing areas are located at an altitude between 300 and 600 meters. However, there are also viticulture at high altitudes that highest vineyards are even over 3,000 meters. The conditions for quality winegrowing exist especially in the vines belts designated geographical areas from 40th to 50th degree of the northern and from 30th to 40th degree of the southern hemisphere. Here are more than 95% of the vineyards. The proximity big waters works especially well danger of frost moderating. Especially in Europe, many important wine-growing regions are located on rivers, lakes and seas with ideal conditions through the formation of valley slopes.
Depending on the climatic conditions, the EU countries will be located in growing zones divided. The term coined in France terroir describes the influence of ancestry The climate and soil interact with the cultivated grape varieties and the local winemaking culture, all of which have an effect on the specific and unmistakable characteristics of the wine grown there. A table of around 100 wine producing countries with vineyards and annual amounts is under Wine production volumes contain. The climate Change In fact, in the next few years / decades, it will bring about significant changes in viticulture. As a consolation: not all will be at a disadvantage - and there are countries that even benefit from it. From the mid-1990s onwards, this concept (also) is the term of Cool Climate Winegrowing which is to be understood as the planting of vines in higher areas with continental climatic conditions.
All aids, works and measures in the vineyard during the growth cycle one finds below Weingarten Care, Complete listings of the numerous cellar techniques, as well as a list of the wine-regulated wine, sparkling wine and distillate types are under the keyword winemaking contain. Comprehensive information on wine law is available under the keyword wine law,
Source Minimum Requirements: Viticulture by Müller / Kadisch / Schulze / Walg, Verlag Ulmer
Graphics: The Winzer 1 - Weinbau, Ulmer Verlag 2019, 4th edition