Suitability of a region for the viniculture that can be measured by objective criteria. Important criteria are climate and Weather necessary for the prosperity of the vines in the course of growth cycle have eminent importance. The exposition (Direction of sunshine) or orientation of the Rows of vines plays an extremely important role, being one hillside with corresponding Tilt the effect is even more positive. In heat-favored, dry areas, south-east to east slopes are sufficient, but in climatic border areas with heat deficits rainfall south to southwest exposures are optimal. According to research, the optimal temperature for the growth of the vine is Geisenheim between 25 and 28 ° C. Towards the end of Maturity date it should be between 15 and 20 ° C to achieve an optimal physiological maturity the grapes to reach. Sunny days alternating with cooler nights are in terms of the balance of sugar and acid advantageous. Shortly before the vintage heavy rainfall is undesirable because of the risk of dilution.
Vines growing in a cool climate generally produce wines with less alcohol content and more acid than in a warm climate. A cold winter is required to be in the resting phase of the vine to enable this one to hibernate, which renews the vitality, as well as pathogenic microorganisms and kill pests. The amounts of rainfall required are of various conditions such as Water storage capacity and water discharge dependent. This in turn is related to the soil conditions. Grapevines are less fertile soil types instructed as annual crops. There are often locations with very poor soils on which high-quality wines grow. Adequate supply with nutrients is very important, however. Height humidity especially in connection with high temperatures fungal diseases favor. The minimum climatic requirements:
However, these criteria alone are not sufficient to determine the wine-growing value of a location without a doubt. There are locations that, despite meeting many conditions, are unsuitable for viticulture. A large part of the most important wine-growing regions is located between 300 and 600 meters above sea level. However, there is also wine growing at great heights highest vineyards are even over 3,000 meters. The conditions for quality winegrowing are mainly in the als vines belts designated geographic areas from 40th to 50th degrees in the northern and from 30th to 40th degrees in the southern hemisphere. Here are over 95% of the vineyards. The proximity of great waters works particularly well with danger of frost moderating. In Europe in particular, there are many important wine-growing regions on rivers, lakes and seas with ideal conditions due to the formation of valley slopes.
Depending on the climatic conditions, the EU countries are in growing zones assigned. The term coined in France terroir describes the influence of origin, Climate and soil in interaction with the planted grape varieties and the local winemaking culture, all of which have an impact on the special and unmistakable characteristics of the wine grown there. A table of around 100 wine producing countries with vineyards and annual quantities is under Wine production volumes contain. The climate Change does exist, it will bring about significant changes in viticulture in the next years / decades. As a consolation: not everyone will be at a disadvantage - and there are countries that even benefit from it. From the mid-1990s, this fact (also) means that the concept of Cool climate winegrowing has become popular, which includes the planting of vines in higher areas with continental climatic conditions.
All tools, work and measures in the vineyard during the growth cycle can be found at Weingarten Care, Complete lists of the numerous cellar techniques, as well as a list of wine, sparkling wine and distillate types regulated by wine law are under the keyword winemaking contain. There is extensive wine law information under the keyword wine law,
Source of minimum requirements: Weinbau von Müller / Kadisch / Schulze / Walg, Verlag Ulmer
Graphics: Der Winzer 1 - Weinbau, Ulmer Verlag 2019, 4th edition