The capital of Austria is also one of the nine federal states and with around 1.9 million inhabitants the most populous and with 415 square kilometers the largest city in the country. Until 1986 Wien also the capital of the largest federal state in the east Lower Austria, then it was replaced by St. Pölten. The city runs from north to southeast in a length of over 20 kilometers from the Danube traversed. With over 600 hectares of vineyards, Wien is the city with the largest wine production worldwide.
Viennese viticulture has a history of two and a half thousand years and is at least as old as the city itself when it was a small settlement. Already that Celts and before them the Illyrians had 500 BC BC in this area, which they called "Vedunia", was already viniculture before the Romans, which many finds such as wine barrels, pressing devices and prove grape seeds. Among other things, at the two vineyards Bisamberg and Nußberg, where many vineyards are still laid out today. As Emperor Marcus Aurelius Probus (232-282) that of Kaiser Domitian (51-96) lifted the ban, vines Planting outside of Italy, the legionnaires in "Vindobona" started viniculture and applied Roman methods. Today's big city with over 400 km² is literally built on vineyards.
Even in the late Middle Ages, most of Vienna's later 21 districts were full of many vineyards, even in what is now the city's core area within the so-called belt with districts from one to nine. There are certificates that attest to the vineyards in today's districts or districts of Stadtpark, Minoritenplatz, Rennweg, Alserbach, Alsegg, Matzleinsdorf, Linke Wienzeile, Weißgerberlände, Landstrasse, Wieden and Mariahilf. Throughout the Middle Ages, viniculture was one of the main sources of income in Wien and many Viennese lived directly and indirectly from it. Even in the early Middle Ages, the restaurant trade was considered a profitable business and wine bar names from the 14th century are documented.
Today's “Stubenviertel” in the 1st district is where the many wine bars and restaurants in this area gave their name. There were ordinances on who was allowed to serve and sell wine with what conditions, with protective measures against brawlers and bullies. This was also necessary, because “drinking and fighting” was also part of the Viennese way of life at that time. The epistle gives above Sauffnarr from the famous preacher Abraham a Sancta Clara (1644-1709) eloquently provides information. Strict laws have been put in place to protect wine. Fierce competition arose from beer and Duke Albrecht V (1397-1439) banned public serving in 1430 , which could cause great damage to the city and our burgers, who have wine wax .
From the middle of the 14th century, export began to flourish and Viennese wine was sold to the Holy Roman Empire (Germany), Poland and Bohemia. At the beginning of the 15th century, the vineyards in Wien and the surrounding area grew rapidly and almost completely replaced agriculture. That is why Duke Albrecht V banned the creation of new vineyards in 1426 to ensure the city's food supply. Emperor Ferdinand I (1503-1564) described wine in a city law as the first food of the city of Wien . The famous wine book of the clergyman Johann quickly (1540-1612) describes in detail the viticulture, the wines, the cultivation of the vineyard, the cellar techniques and also the drinking culture in these times.
Emperor Ferdinand III (1608-1657) financed Vienna's defense against the siege of the Swedes in the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) with wine, so to speak, by introducing in 1639 a special wine tax of one penny per bucket of wine stored. The Swedes successfully fended off. The captive Swedes were given a glass of the taxed wine, which was called "Swedish wine", as a mockery. The best wines were stored in the three-storey kk courtyard cellar deep below the castle. The then Emperor Leopold I (1640-1705) commissioned the construction of a giant barrel with a volume of 5,050 buckets, which was 285,000 liters of wine. A wine history of Vienna without mentioning the famous banker Dear Augustin (lived in the 17th century) would be incomplete. The year 1443 is particularly noteworthy, when the wine was so extremely acidic that it was said that even the tires of the barrels were attacked. This is why the term came to be used in the Viennese vernacular, which has always aptly understood “getting things to the point” Reif biter created.
Wien is both a generic and a specific one wine region, With Lower Austria and the Burgenland it forms the wine regionwine country, Around 500 winegrowers mainly practice viticulture in the west and north of the city. There are vineyards in 9 of Vienna's 23 districts, namely in 1010 Innere Stadt, 1100 Favoriten, 1130 Hietzing, 1160 Ottakring, 1170 Hernals, 1190 Döbling, 1210 Floridsdorf, 1220 Donaustadt and 1230 Liesing. Most of the 145th Rieden or vineyards is located in Döbling (86 with over 300 hectares of vineyards), Floridsdorf (33) and Liesing (11). From the winegrowers' association WienWein A location classification initiative was launched in 2017. The city of Wien has five vineyards Großlagen divided:
Possible indications of origin are Riede (e.g. Alsegg, Prussia, Reisenberg, Rosengartl), large location (e.g. Kahlenberg), cadastral community (e.g. Grinzing. Stammersdorf ) or district (e.g. Döbling, Hernals, Liesing).
A state law that came into effect in 2015 now stipulates that Vienna's vineyards must be cultivated; this means that they are, as it were, listed buildings. All managers and property owners of Viennese vineyards are obliged to use them for viticulture. Even areas that were cleared after the law came into force must be replanted after eight years at the latest. The association's winemakers had been together for years WienWein used for this. In the past, Vienna's vineyards were always threatened by real estate speculation, because existing spatial planning and development plans offered too little protection. The law ended speculation.
A curiosity is that with only 75 vines on around 170 m² smallest vineyard Vienna in a front garden of the Ringstrasse Palace "Wiener von Welten" at Schwarzenbergplatz 2 in the 1st district. According to tradition, it was planted by a caretaker from Transylvania. Every autumn, the mayor of Vienna personally harvests the first grapes, using the media. The vinification is carried out by the winery Mayer at Pfarrplatz in Döbling. The harvest yields about 50 to 60 bottles Mixed sentence (with the majority of Grüner Veltliner), which will be auctioned in December on the occasion of the humanitarian campaign "Licht ins Dunkel".
That Wien and Wine are inextricably linked is also manifested in the fact that the two words are made up of the same letters. In the Middle Ages, the city was called "Weyn" in several German dialects (for example in Lower Rhine). The famous wine author Hugh Johnson writes that no city is as full of bliss as Wien . The Viennese Heurige is known worldwide and therefore many guests come to Wien (also). The glass-by-glass sale of high-quality bottled wines has also established itself in the 180 Heurigen companies. Well-known wine places with many wine taverns Grinzing, Heiligenstadt, Jedlersdorf, Wall, Neustift am Walde, Nussdorf, Oberlaa, Sievering, Stammersdorf and Strebersdorf.
In 2016, the vineyards covered a total of 637 hectares of vineyards. Compared to 2009 with 612 hectares there was an increase of 4%. The proportion of clearly dominating white wine varieties is 83%, the proportion of red wine varieties 17%. The white mixed sentence displaced the Grüner Veltliner from the top.
| Grape variety - Austrian |
| officially permitted in Austria |
|colour|| hectare |
| % -Ant |
| hectare |
|According to sentence white||-||179||28||51|
|White Riesling||Riesling, Rheinriesling||White||60||9.4||84|
|White Burgundy||Pinot Blanc, Klevner||White||43||6.7||51|
|Zweigelt||Blauer Zweigelt, Rotburger||red||42||6.5||49|
|Chardonnay||Morillon - not used in Wien||White||30||74.6||46|
|Blue burgundy||Pinot Noir, Blue Pinot Noir||red||19||2.9||22|
|muscatel||Yellow M., Red M. / Muscat Blanc||White||10||1.5||7|
|Traminer||Gewurztraminer, Red T., Yellow T.||White||7||1.1||10|
|Gray burgundy||Pinot gris, Ruländer||White||4.5||0.7||-|
|According to sentence red||-||red||0.8||0.1||2|
|and. white varieties||-||White||3.4||0.5||2|
The typical Viennese Heurigen wine is that Mixed sentence, in which, according to old tradition, different grape varieties are mixed in the vineyard and are harvested and processed together. The “Vienna Mixed Set” was created in 2009 by the association Slow food added as a "passenger" of the "ark of taste". It is therefore one of the foods that are to be strictly protected against the great threat posed by industrial agriculture and the food industry and are to be preserved for future generations. It has been available as a controlled origin since the 2013 vintage Wiener mixed set DAC,
In contrast to all other wine-growing areas, everyone is allowed quality wines Vienna continues to come onto the market under the name "Wiener Wein" (non-DAC quality wines from, for example, the Weinviertel may only originate from the generic wine-growing region Lower Austria be marketed). A mixed set that does not meet the provisions of the Vienna Mixed Set must be as country wine with the designation of origin wine country placed on the market.
Well-known Viennese wine producers often with one wine tavern are Bernreiter Peter. Christ Rainer. Cobenzl. Edlmoser Michael. Fuhrgassl-Huber. Goebel Hans-Peter. Hajszan Neumann. Robert helmet. Hengl-Haselbrunner. Hofer Wolfgang. Kattus. Long Irene. Lentner Karl. Mayer at Pfarrplatz. Mayer Vitikultur. Pfaffl Roman. Reinprecht Hugo. Schilling Herbert. Klosterneuburg. Wieninger. Winzerhof Leopold and Zahel, Known winegrowers' associations are Traditional wineries Austria. Vienna Classic and WienWein,