The capital of Austria is also one of the nine federal states and with about 1.9 million inhabitants the most populous and with 415 square kilometers the largest city in the country. Until 1986, Wien also the capital of the largest federal state in the east Lower Austria, then it was replaced by St. Pölten. The city is from north to southeast in a length of over 20 kilometers from the Danube traversed. With over 600 hectares of vineyards, Wien is the city with the largest wine production in the world.
The Viennese viticulture has a two and a half thousand-year history and is at least as old as the city itself, as this was still a small settlement. Already the Celts and before them the Illyrians had 500 BC. In this area, which they called "Vedunia", were already cultivating viticulture before the Romans, as many finds such as wine barrels, pressing devices and prove grape seeds. Among other things, at the two vineyards Bisamberg and Nußberg where many vineyards are still created today. As Emperor Marcus Aurelius Probus (232-282) that of Emperor Domitian (51-96) adopted a ban, vines To plant outside of Italy, the legionnaires began in "Vindobona" viticulture to operate and apply Roman methods. Today's big city with over 400 km² area is literally built on vineyards.
Even in the late Middle Ages, the largest parts of the later Vienna 21 districts were full of many vineyards, even in today's core area of the city within the so-called belt with the districts of one to nine. There are documents that testify vineyards in the districts or urban districts Stadtpark, Minoritenplatz, Rennweg, Alserbach, Alsegg, Matzleinsdorf, Linke Wienzeile, Weißgerberlände, Landstraße, Wieden and Mariahilf. Throughout the Middle Ages, viticulture in Wien one of the main sources of income and many Viennese lived directly and indirectly. Already in the early Middle Ages, the innkeeper business was considered a lucrative business and there are wine tavern names from the 14th century documented.
Today's "Stubenviertel" in the 1st district, the many wine taverns and restaurants in this area also gave the name. There were regulations, who was allowed to pour and sell wine with which conditions with protective measures against Zechpreller and Raufbolde. This was also necessary because the "drinking and drinking" was also part of the Viennese way of life at the time. About it gives the epistle Sauffnarr from the famous preacher Abraham a Sancta Clara (1644-1709) eloquent information. Strict laws were passed to protect the wine. A strong competition arose through beer and Duke Albrecht V. (1397-1439) forbade the public serving in 1430, from which the city and our burgers, who have wine wax, might be damaged .
From the middle of the 14th century exports began to flourish and Viennese wine was sold to the Holy Roman Empire (Germany), Poland and Bohemia. At the beginning of the 15th century, the vineyards in and around Wien grew rapidly and almost completely ousted agriculture. Therefore, in the year 1426 by Duke Albrecht V. the creation of new vineyards was forbidden to secure the nutrition of the city. Emperor Ferdinand I (1503-1564) described the wine in a city law as the first food of the city of Wien . The famous wine book of the clergyman Johann quickly (1540-1612) describes in detail the viticulture, the wines, the vineyard cultivation, the cellaring techniques and also the drinking culture in these times.
Emperor Ferdinand III. (1608-1657) financed the defense of Vienna against the siege of Sweden during the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) so to speak with wine by introducing in 1639 a special wine tax of one groschen per stored bucket of wine. It succeeded successfully to fend off the Swedes. The trapped Swedes were scoffed at a glass of taxed wine called "Sweden wine". The best wines were stored deep in the three-storey kk Hofkeller under the castle. The then Emperor Leopold I (1640-1705) commissioned the construction of a giant barrel with a volume of 5,050 buckets, that was 285,000 liters of wine. A wine history of Vienna without the mention of the famous bänkelsängers Dear Augustin (lived in the 17th century) would be incomplete. Noteworthy is the year 1443, in which the wine was so extremely sour that allegedly even the tires of the barrels were attacked. In the Viennese vernacular, which has always aptly understood "to put things in a nutshell", was therefore the name Reif biter created.
Wien is both generic and specific wine region, With Lower Austria and the Burgenland it forms the wine regionwine country, Around 500 winegrowers operate mainly in the west and north of the city viticulture. Vineyards can be found in 9 of Vienna's 23 districts, namely 1010 Innere Stadt, 1100 Favoriten, 1130 Hietzing, 1160 Ottakring, 1170 Hernals, 1190 Döbling, 1210 Floridsdorf, 1220 Donaustadt and 1230 Liesing. The majority of the 145th Rieden or vineyards is located in Döbling (86 with over 300 hectares of vineyards), Floridsdorf (33) and Liesing (11). From the winegrowers' association WienWein In 2017 an initiative "Lagenklassifizierung" was started. The vineyards of the city of Wien are in five Großlagen divided:
Possible indications of source are Riede (eg Alsegg, Prussia, Reisenberg, Rosengartl), Großlage (eg Kahlenberg), Katastralgemeinde (eg Kahlenberg) Grinzing. Stammersdorf ) or district (eg Döbling, Hernals, Liesing).
A provincial law that became effective in 2015 now stipulates that Vienna vineyards must be managed imperatively; so that they are, so to speak, a listed building. All farmers or landowners of Wiener Rebflächen are obliged to use them for viticulture purposes. Even areas that have been cleared after the entry into force of the law, must be replanted after eight years at the latest. For years, the winemakers of the union WienWein used for this. Vienna's vineyards were in the past always threatened by real estate speculation, because existing spatial planning and zoning plans offered too little protection. The law ended the speculation.
A curiosity is the with only 75 vines on about 170 m² smallest vineyard Vienna in a front garden of the Ring Road Palace "Wiener von Welten" at Schwarzenbergplatz 2 in the 1st district. He was planted in the tradition around 1900 by a caretaker originating from Transylvania. Every autumn, the mayors of Vienna personally harvest the first grapes. The vinification takes place through the winery Mayer at Pfarrplatz in Dobling. The harvest yields about 50 to 60 bottles Mixed set (with the majority of Grüner Veltliner), which will be auctioned in December on the occasion of the humanitarian campaign "Licht ins Dunkel".
That Wien and wine are inextricably linked is also manifested in the fact that the two words are formed from the same letters. In the Middle Ages, the city was called "Weyn" in several German dialects (for example in the Lower Rhine). The well-known wine author Hugh Johnson writes that no city is as full of wine as Wien . The Viennese Heurige is known worldwide and many guests come to Wien . In the 180 Heurigen factories, the glass-by-sale sale of high-quality bottled wines has also become established. Well-known wine villages with many wine taverns are Grinzing, Heiligenstadt, Jedlersdorf, Wall, Neustift am Walde, Nussdorf, Oberlaa, Sievering, Stammersdorf and Strebersdorf.
In 2016, the vineyards covered a total of 637 hectares of vineyards. Compared to 2009 with 612 hectares, there was an increase of 4%. The share of clearly dominant white wine varieties is 83%, the proportion of red wines 17%. The white mixed sentence ousted the Green Veltliner from the top.
| Grape variety - Austrian |
| officially permitted in Austria |
|colour|| hectare |
| % -Ant |
| hectare |
|Gem. Set knows||-||179||28||51|
|White Riesling||Riesling, Rhine Riesling||White||60||9.4||84|
|White Burgundy||Pinot Blanc, Klevner||White||43||6.7||51|
|Zweigelt||Blue Zweigelt, Rotburger||red||42||6.5||49|
|Chardonnay||Morillon - not used in Wien||White||30||74.6||46|
|Blue Burgundy||Pinot Noir, Blue Pinot Noir||red||19||2.9||22|
|muscatel||Yellow M., Red M. / Muscat Blanc||White||10||1.5||7|
|Traminer||Gewurztraminer, Red T., Yellow T.||White||7||1.1||10|
|Gray Burgundy||Pinot gris, Ruländer||White||4.5||0.7||-|
|Gem. Set red||-||red||0.8||0.1||2|
|and white varieties||-||White||3.4||0.5||2|
The typical Viennese Heuriger wine is the Mixed set, where according to ancient tradition different grape varieties are planted mixed in the vineyard and are harvested and processed together. The "Wiener Gemischte Satz" was founded in 2009 by the association Slow Food recorded as a "passenger" of the "Ark of Taste". It is one of the foodstuffs that are to be strictly protected against the great danger posed by industrial agriculture and the food industry and preserved for future generations. Since the 2013 vintage, this is available as a source-controlled Viennese mixed set DAC,
In contrast to all other winegrowing areas, all quality wines Vienna continues to come under the name "Viennese wine" on the market (non-DAC quality wines from for example the Weinviertel may yes as origin only with the generic Weinbaugebiet Lower Austria be marketed). A mixed sentence which does not comply with the provisions of the Vienna Joint Phrase must be considered as country wine with the denomination of origin wine country be placed on the market.
Well-known Viennese wine producers with often also one wine tavern are Bernreiter Peter. Christ Rainer. Cobenzl. Edlmoser Michael. Fuhrgassl-Huber. Göbel Hans-Peter. Hajszan Neumann. Helmet Robert. Hengl-Haselbrunner. Hofer Wolfgang. Kattus. Long Irene. Lentner Karl. Mayer at Pfarrplatz. Mayer Vitikultur. Pfaffl Roman. Reinprecht Hugo. Schilling Herbert. Stift Klosterneuburg. Wieninger. Winzerhof Leopold and Zahel, Well-known winegrower associations are Traditionsweingüter Austria. Vienna Classic and WienWein,