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22.632 Keywords • 48.661 Synonyms • 5.293 Translations • 7.914 Pronunciations • 148.953 Cross-references

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wine address

wine speech (GB)
vin discours (F)
discurso vino (ES)
discorso vino (I)
discurso vinho (PO)

Already in the antiquity There was a language of wine tasters for the description of wine quality, In Greek literature one has found about a hundred terms. Of course, there was no general vocabulary, but an assessment was left to the imagination or the discretion of the individual. It was not until the beginning of the 18th century that a culture began to develop in the wine scene. The French chemist Jean-Antoine Claude Chaptal (1756-1832) used in his published in 1807 work "Art de faire, gouverner, and de perfectionner les vins" already more than 60 expressions. Professor René Pijassou (1922-2007) from the University of Bordeaux collected in his studies on the history of Médoc wines all the expressions used at that time by estate agents and winery owners (eg, expressionless, flat, full, full-bodied, aftertaste, robust, round, velvety) and presented already Tasting rules.

Beginning of professional reviews

In the book "Topography de tous les vignobles connus" by wine merchant André Jullien (1766-1832) there is a list of about 70 technical terms describing the qualities, the defects and the diseases of the wines. For the first time in the term comes tannin and descriptive attributes like astringent, balsamic, straightforward, annoying, tingling, silky, solid and dry. In "Dictionaire-Manuel du négoicant en vins et spiritueux et du maître de chai" by Édouard Féret from the year 1896 there were already 180 terms. The Scottish doctor Alexander Henderson (1780-1863) is considered one of the first wine writers who strove for a general and laymen understandable nomenclature. As a standard work is the book "Wine test, know and enjoy" (Wine Tasting) by the English author Michael Broadbent (born 1927), which has been reissued since 1960. Today, about a thousand different terms are in use.

Well-known wine critic: É. Peynaud, R. Parker, J. Robinson, M. Broadbent, H. Johnson

The type of wine description or the vocabulary used is also due to the tasting reason. The famous degustator Émile Peynaud (1912-2004) has described this in his book "The High School of Wine connoisseurs" as follows: "The chemist seeks above all the analytical error, the law enforcement officials the violation of the law, the oenologist the removal error, the winemaker the character and the dealer what the market is looking for " . At a professional wine review is tasted according to established rules, which means that its quality and condition are analyzed to the best of our knowledge and belief. This is done in verbal and / or written form according to defined rules or a grading in the form of a points system. The formulated rating is called "Weinansprache", which reflects all subjective and above all objective and comprehensible impressions regarding color, smell, taste and overall impression in an understandable and clear way.

Division into description groups

The descriptive adjectives in the wine evaluation or wine description can be divided into three groups. The first group of hedonistic Terms like the positively occupied incomparable, fantastic, fabulous, unique, delicious and wonderful is often used in brochures, but is objectively useless, because you can understand everything and nothing. However, this does not mean that a hedonistic assessment - especially in the private sphere - has no justification - even if it is only in the short form "tastes" or "does not taste good". As helpful information for a consumer or purchase decision, this is of course unsuitable. The award of wines in the Swiss Vaud with the Terravin Seal By the way, "Lauriers de Platine Terravin" is done according to hedonistic criteria. The eligible wines were but before objective sensory Criteria already selected as top wines.

The second group like for example flowery. fruity and fresh Although much better suited, but also describes relatively inaccurate and vague and leaves too many options for interpretation. For example, "fresh" can have a high acidity ( tartaric acid ), on the fresh sparkling carbonic acid or on the temperature of the wine (fresh from the cellar). These terms are thus understandable or clear only in the context of the description. Only the third group of exact terms of analytic nature, such as aromas / tones after green grass. roses. nutmeg. tobacco and vanilla, such as astringent. acidity and longer leaving are also objectively comprehensible because they are known and verifiable by everyone. They are recognized by experts as synonymous terminology and generally valid. Very helpful for laymen but also professionals is the s.der University of California by chemist Ann C. Noble developed aroma wheel,

nomenclature

But there is no international nomenclature with clearly defined terms. This fails because of the fact that terms in a particular language are often judgmental, that is to say positive or negative. The vocabulary of professional tasters can be quite different. For many terms, there are synonymous or similar terms, which illustrates the difficulty of normalization. A good example is massive, for which also broad-shouldered, powerful, muscular or bodied can stand. If there are many similarities within one language, standardization is almost impossible with different languages.

In the case of a rating, any defects are also identified; these terms are under wine faults cited. In part, the positive and negative meanings of terms overlap. A weaker one horse sweat (on Stinkerl ), for example, must not be a wine error, but on the contrary can even be perceived as pleasant. However, it is a phenomenon that there are more negative than positive terms. Often one differentiates between gustatory (Taste), olfactory (Smell) and trigeminal (Sense of touch).

Wine description terms

There are innumerable terms, many of which are only common in certain countries or languages or only locally. The list does not claim to be exhaustive:

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