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The largest wine encyclopedia in the world

22.543 Keywords • 48.945 Synonyms • 5.287 Translations • 7.918 Pronunciations • 147.012 Cross-references

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wine address

wine speech (GB)
vin discours (F)
discurso vino (ES)
discorso vino (I)
discurso vinho (PO)

Already in the antiquity There was a language of wine tasters for the description of wine quality, In Greek literature one has found about a hundred terms. Of course, there was no general vocabulary, but an assessment was left to the imagination or the discretion of the individual. It was not until the beginning of the 18th century that a culture began to develop in the wine scene. The French chemist Jean-Antoine Claude Chaptal (1756-1832) used in his published in 1807 work "Art de faire, de gouverner, et de perfectionner les vins" already more than 60 expressions. Professor René Pijassou (1922-2007) from the University of Bordeaux collected in his studies on the history of Médoc wines all the terms used at that time by brokers and winery owners (eg, expressionless, flat, full, full-bodied, aftertaste, robust, round, velvety) and presented already Tasting rules.

Beginning of professional reviews

In the book "Topography de tous les vignobles connus" by wine merchant André Jullien (1766-1832) there is a list of about 70 technical terms describing the qualities, the defects and the diseases of the wines. For the first time, this is the term tannin and descriptive attributes like astringent, balsamic, straightforward, annoying, tingling, silky, solid and dry. In "Dictionaire-Manuel du négoicant en vins et spiritueux et du maître de chai" by Édouard Féret from the year 1896 there were at least 180 terms. The Scottish doctor Alexander Henderson (1780-1863) is considered one of the first wine writers who sought a general and understandable to laymen nomenclature. As a standard work is the book "Wine testing, know and enjoy" (Wine Tasting) by the English author Michael Broadbent (born 1927), which has been reissued since 1960. Today, about a thousand different terms are in use.

Wine critic: É. Peynaud, R. Parker, J. Robinson, M. Broadbent, H. Johnson

The type of wine description or the vocabulary used is also due to the tasting reason. The famous degustator Émile Peynaud (1912-2004) has described this in his book "The High School of Wine connoisseurs" as follows: "The chemist looks first of all for the analytical error, the prosecution official for the violation of the law, the oenologist for the removal error, the winemaker for the character and the dealer what the market is looking for " . At a professional wine review is tasted according to established rules, which means that its quality and condition are analyzed to the best of our knowledge and belief. This is done in verbal and / or written form according to established rules or a grading in the form of a points system. The formulated rating is called "Weinansprache", which reflects all subjective and above all objective and comprehensible impressions regarding color, smell, taste and overall impression in an understandable and clear way.

Division into description groups

The descriptive adjectives in the wine evaluation or wine description can be divided into three groups. The first group of hedonistic Terms such as the positively occupied incomparable, fantastic, legendary, unique, delicious and wonderful is often used in brochures, but is objectively useless, because you can understand everything and nothing. This does not mean, however, that a hedonistic assessment - especially in the private sphere - has no justification - even if it is only in the short form "tastes" or "does not taste good". As helpful information for a consumer or purchase decision, this is of course unsuitable. The award of wines in the Swiss Vaud with the Terravin Seal By the way, "Lauriers de Platine Terravin" is done according to hedonistic criteria. The eligible wines were but before objective sensory Criteria already selected as top wines.

The second group like for example flowery. fruity and fresh Although much better suited, but also describes relatively inaccurate and vague and leaves too many options for interpretation. For example, "fresh" can be based on a high acidity ( tartaric acid ), on the fresh sparkling carbonic acid or on the temperature of the wine (cellar fresh). These terms are thus understandable or clear only in the context of the description. Only the third group of exact terms of analytic nature, such as aromas / tones after green grass. roses. nutmeg. tobacco and vanilla, such as astringent. acidity and longer leaving are also objectively comprehensible because they are known and verifiable by everyone. They are recognized by experts as synonymous terminology and generally valid. Very helpful for laymen but also professionals is the s.der University of California by chemist Ann C. Noble developed aroma wheel,

nomenclature

However, there is by no means an internationally valid nomenclature with clearly defined terms. This fails because words in a particular language are often judgmental, that is to say positives or negatives. The vocabulary of professional tasters can be quite different. In many terms, there are synonymous or similar terms, which illustrates the difficulty of normalization. A good example is massive, for what also broad-shouldered, powerful, muscular or bodied can stand. If there are many similarities within one language, standardization is almost impossible with different languages.

In the case of a rating, any defects are also identified; these terms are under wine faults cited. In part, the positive and negative meanings of terms are intersecting. A weaker one horse sweat (on Stinkerl ) For example, must not be a wine error, but on the contrary even be perceived as pleasant. However, it is a phenomenon that there are more negative than positive terms. Often one differentiates between gustatory (Taste), olfactory (Smell) and trigeminal (Sense of touch).

Wine description terms

There are countless terms, many of which are only common in certain countries or languages ​​or even locally. The list does not claim to be exhaustive:

World's largest wine knowledge database, made with by our author Norbert Tischelmayer.

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