Wine adulteration or colloquially panthenon means consciously and deliberately against wine law Incorrect manipulation of the winemaking carried out with deceptive or fraudulent intent. Prohibited additions to the taste or the condition "improved" and thus falsely faked a certain or better quality, the quantities of high quality cry by mixing with simple, cheaply produced mass wine or just with water stretched, as well as incorrect labels even using real ones labels and / or bottles of wine under prestigious names or vintages be marketed.
In the history of viticulture there have always been different and often changing views regarding the question of what exactly should be considered as wine adulteration. What is considered pantchery today was perhaps only a few decades ago a widely practiced practice. Even today, some techniques are country-specific and especially in Europe towards the New world regulated differently. Three significant examples are the provisions regarding enrich. leavening and sweetening, The introduction of strict wine laws in many wine-producing countries starting with the end of the 19th century had a positive effect. They already existed for individual wine-growing regions. Of course, manipulation could not be prevented entirely.
The 18th in particular is considered the “century of wine scandals ". The enormous demand in England for port wine led to bottlenecks from 1730. Therefore on Douro simpler wines with alcohol, Elderberry juice, ginger. pepper. cinnamon and sugar added. The positive effect was that in 1756 the port wine area was declared one of the first protected areas and strict laws were passed. in the Bordeaux was widely used to blend the wines for the English market with simple, high-alcohol wines from other areas (Rhône, Spain). As in France through the Reblaus- and mildew Plage great lack of wine prevailed, was from 1880 in large quantities raisin wine manufactured. In the 19th century, Hungarian counterfeiting was widespread in many countries Tokay, there were even detailed recipes for this in books.
The big breakthrough in the fight against counterfeiting began with the definition of controlled origin or Origin designations, These are based on France with the appellation system emerged from the beginning of the 20th century. Of course, adulterated wine and panties continued to exist with increasingly sophisticated and difficult to verify methods. Because counterfeiters also benefit from new scientific knowledge. It is a special form of fraud to incorrectly market wines under a prestigious name or winery and / or special vintage. One motive is that very expensive wines increasingly used for capital investments, for which there is a market especially in Japan and Russia. Such buyers are ready to Auctions Paying lovers' prices.
The addition of water to wine for the purpose of wine propagation is the oldest and most common practice of adulteration. However, one has to differentiate between the production (in which this is clearly fraudulent) and the enjoyment of wine. In the antiquity was mixing wine with water common practice to minimize alcohol content and was considered a sign of cultivated moderation by the Greeks (see under Satyricon ). Until the late Middle Ages, pure water could hardly be drunk uncooked due to the largely existing contamination of the wells and springs by waste water, especially in the cities. Wine mixed with water was therefore also out hygienic Establish an everyday drink that was drunk in large quantities. The biggest problem was that durability, therefore one tried by adding different ingredients like distillates. spices. resin and herbal essences to preserve and preserve the wine flavor,
Even the Greeks in pre-Christian antiquity knew about the preservative effect of Schwefelns but in the 15th century the addition was banned and punished severely for violations. The most common manipulation techniques have always been that acidity, the Sweet and the colour to "improve" the wine. Various substances such as lime, lead acetate. grape. bovine blood. salt and sugar used. The clergyman Johann quickly (1540-1612) already gave advice in the "Wine Book: On Baw, Maintenance and Customs of Wine" published in 1580 on how to detect counterfeit wines such as the addition of water.
Even in ancient Rome it was common to have simple wine from other areas as prestigious Falernian issue. Today, wines are filled in original bottles with original labels, because the profit margin is very high even with small quantities of counterfeit wines. With today's means, however, it is relatively easy to produce deceptively real labels (scanning the original and changing the vintage). When using real bottles and labels, even a newly developed method does not help to determine the age of bottle glass. However, very well if no original bottle, only original labels were used.
The most common counterfeiting practices are new production, fraudulent labeling and refilling. New production means the fact that Wine. bottle. cork. capsule and label were newly produced and nothing is original anymore. It also happens that real bottles, capsules or labels are sometimes used.
With fraudulent labels, a weaker vintage is made a special vintage by simply exchanging the label (e.g. with one Château Lafite-Rothschild 1991 happened, which mutated into a year 1982). In older vintages, wines from lesser-known wineries of a large vintage or the are often second wines of famous châteaux with the label of the Erstweins newly labeled. In this case, the capsule is correct, the bottle is from the period of the wine mentioned on the label, the soiling, the vintage brand and the age of the cork match the original.
When refilling, a lower quality wine is filled into the original bottle. A cork can be pulled out of the bottle undamaged using a special bottle opener. There is already a market for bottle utensils of prominent wines. New capsules are available on the Internet. For empty bottles of e.g. B. Château Lafite-Rothschild is paid up to $ 500 in China and resold with dubious content.
When detecting counterfeits, they play bottle shape (the bottle neck of old bottles is often conical, seam indicates machine production), bottle bottom (in the mid-1990s, a hole was drilled in the underbody using a microscopic drill, the wine was emptied using a pump, then filled with new, different wine and the bottle sealed with a special glass adhesive), the nature of the glass, the filling level (indicating age), the colour the bottle (certain wineries use certain colors and shapes) that label and the state of the cork a role. The challenge is to examine the wine without opening the bottle. For this purpose, the cork is pierced with a thin needle and a small amount of wine is removed. Traces of radioactivity can indicate, for example, that the wine was created after the atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945.
A method has been developed in France to check the authenticity of old wine bottles. In autumn 2008, scientists from the "Regional de Caractérisation par Analyze Nucléaire Elémentaire" announced that the origin and age of bottle glass can be determined using high-energy ions. There were 160 older rarities from the well-known London trading house Antique Wine Company analyzed. In cooperation with the university, this company now offers the testing of old bottles as a service.
For the detection of illicit practices are increasing DNA analysis developed. Researchers of the INRA achieved a breakthrough in 2002 by using the analytical method Nuclear Magnetic Resonance developed. It can be used to determine whether a wine flavorings were added. As a measure against manipulation, Ornellaia for the first time this RFID system used. A new method of analysis called metabolomics was tested at the Max Planck Institute. When awarding the Official test number (Germany) and State test number (Austria) plays possible wine manipulation relative density measurement an important role.
A comprehensive diploma thesis was published by Thomas Breitwieser in June 2008 under the title "Wine Forgeries - Guide to Recognizing Wine Plagiarism" . This runs the website "Lust für Wein" . Certain contents of the diploma thesis were also used as a source.
The most spectacular counterfeit wines of modern times are under wine scandal as well as under Hardy Rodenstock and Rudy Kurniawan cited. The question of which methods or use of certain medium have to be regarded as wine adulteration, won by the wine trade agreement between 2006 and 2006 United States and European Union explosive topicality. There is extensive information in this regard under the keyword wine law, Complete lists of the numerous vinification measures and cellar techniques, as well as the types of wine, sparkling wine and distillate regulated by wine are under winemaking contain.