Canaan (biblical name for Palestine), called the "Promised Land", had to be Israelites conquer or colonize twice. This took place under Abraham, the progenitor of Israel (and by the way also the Arabs) around 2000 to 1900 and under Moses after forty years of wandering the desert around 1300 to 1200 BC Chr. History research does not agree on whether the two people actually lived or are just legendary figures. In any case, Moses died after reaching the goal without having entered it. At the border, Moses received an order from Yahweh to have the country of Canaan, which he intended for the Israelites, be scouted. There they came to a wadi (wild brook valley) near Hebron. This is stated in the book Numbers as follows (13.22 ff): It was just the time of the first grapes. When they reached the Eschkol valley, they cut off a vine with a bunch of grapes, which they carried in pairs on a pole, along with some pomegranates and figs. The grape (Hebrew Eschkol = grape) must have been huge.
Wine is a common topic in the Bible. Vineyard occurs over 90 times, vine over 60 times and wine press 15 times. According to the Bible researcher Jürgen Becker, a total of 979 positions refer directly or indirectly to wine. For comparison, this applies to Homer (8th century BC) Works Iliad and Odyssey only 49 and 85 times, respectively. Even though beer was also a widely used drink at the time, it did not have the same status. Martin Luther (1483-1546) said: Beer is man-made, but wine is from God . Bible researchers found eight different Hebrew words that were translated as "wine" in different languages. Not in all cases it is real wine, but partly syrup, rather beer-like or other alcoholic beverages from different tree and field fruits. The following names occur over 200 times:
How important viticulture was for the Israelite community is illustrated by several statements in the book Deuteronomy. This is a collection of sermon-like speeches and laws that Moses announced to the Israelites before entering Canaan. Regarding participation in an upcoming battle (June 20), he says: Who is the man who planted a vineyard and has not yet used it? He opens up and returns to his house so that he doesn't die in battle and another man uses him. So the winegrower was up to Virgin Reading exempted from military service and that was after all a period of three to five years. Securing viticulture was more important to the Israelites than one more man in battle.
There were guidelines for grape consumption in the vineyard (23.35): If you come into your neighbor's vineyard, you can eat grapes as much as you like, you are full; but you must not put anything in your vessel . And the time after the harvest was also regulated...