The final decision on the quality A wine is made by the consumer and, despite all scientifically based analysis methods, is a mixture of not purely objective, but largely subjective impressions. Whether a wine "tastes" also depends on physiological preferences or dislikes (someone does not like red wine because he may have bad experiences due to high levels histamine levels ), the cultural background of the consumer and personal experiences. Strictly speaking, experiences are subjective, but on the other hand they are an objective criterion (for acid-stressed Someone gets heartburn crying, which makes such a wine of poor quality).
The chemist describes by objective analyzes how the wine is made, the consumer or wine critic subjectively describes how it tastes. Ultimately, the saying must be accepted: De gustibus non est disputandum (You can't argue about taste) . A qualitative wine review in the form of a rating and textual description is determined by professional tastings. There are already attempts to use the "tastable" quality Glycosyl-glucose assay determine.
The wine quality is determined by origin (Origin), methods of Weingarten Care (Vineyard), as well as type of winemaking (Basement) influenced. The practice of dividing wines into quality classes already existed in the antiquity, whereby the origin of the grapes has always played a major role in the assessment. From the 1970s, an origin-based system was introduced in many countries. In the 1990s, the EU established a multi-level quality system with the levels table wine (but see there), table wine. country wine and quality wine (or QbA = quality wine of certain growing areas) established that was valid until July 2009. In some countries there were also intermediate levels or special designations such as those in Germany and Austria Prädikatswein, In the states of the European Union and partly also in the New world was or is still a mostly multi-stage Quality Wine Scheme valid with different names.
In August 2009, an extensive change in the EU wine market regulations came into force, which brought about major changes in quality levels and descriptions, among other things. The origin protection system of Community food law was also adopted for wine and the criterion origin Given great importance. With the new system, a distinction is now made between "wine without geographical indication" and "wine with geographical indication". Thus it was modeled on the French appellation system existing quality philosophy of "Romanesque wine law" adopted, which has always been based on the origin of wine, but also of food and agricultural products. The aim is to replace the quality hierarchies in some countries, which are state-based and arbitrarily incompatible, and to link the new levels with clear profiles and make them understandable for consumers.
According to a transition period, wines that were marketed according to the "old regulation" before December 31, 2010 were allowed to continue to be marketed until stocks were exhausted. However, this should not be confused with the obligation of the Member States to send the technical specifications for all protected names of origin to the Commission by the end of 2011 at the latest, as otherwise the international protection for such an origin would have lapsed. The new names:
A special feature is the possible processing of grapes from one EU member state in another EU member state. For example, this could be "Wine made in Austria from grapes harvested in Italy". Wines from third countries are labeled with details of the third country, for example "Wine from Chile" or "Wine from Australia". A blend of wines from several third countries, for example a Chilean wine blended with an Australian wine, is called "blend of wines outside the...