Already in antique According to written reports, Greece was a class of wine merchants in the early third century BC. For these existed their own job title "oinogeustes" (wine tasters), because visibly the ability of tasting was a prerequisite. The Greek port Monemvasia On the peninsula Peloponnese was especially in the Middle Ages a major trading center for Sweet wines from the entire Mediterranean. Practiced for centuries England especially through strong import France a big influence on the wine taste. This has changed champagne. clairet. port wine and sherry established as wine styles. France has always been one of the main wine suppliers for many countries.
Especially in the region Bordeaux Many large trading companies have come into being, because from here the transport is mainly after England took place. Therefore has the Bordeaux wine trade a very special historical meaning. The Négociants Today, around 70% of the wines produced here are marketed in this region. At the time of their great colonial empires and conquests in Overseas especially the three countries had England. Portugal. Spain and the city state Venice great importance in the wine trade. The former naval power Netherlands From the beginning of the 17th century, for over a hundred years, it had a leading or controlling influence on the wine and spirits trade and became the world's largest trading power.
One differentiates in trade with unfilled wines in large containers (tanks or barrels), what generally as bulk wine (Caskware), as well as the trade in bottles. The sale of the barrel goods is done by winemakers and Winzergenossenschaften especially to the wine trade, as well as to wine and sparkling wine cellars for further processing. The most important forms of distribution for bottles are the consumer market, food trade, wine shop, Farmgate sales, Mail order (increasingly via Internet) and gastronomy. The German company Hillebrand headquartered in Mainz-Hechtsheim (Rhineland-Palatinate) is the world's largest wine and beverage carrier. Special forms of the wine trade are Auctions (also increasingly via the Internet such as eBay) and subscriptions that is, pre-sales even before a wine is even produced (with special form "en Primeur"). Great changes arose from the 1980s through the increasing globalization the wine markets with huge multinationals (see largest wine companies in the world ).
The USA are the largest export market for European wine. Absolute front runners in the import are Germany and traditionally the countries England, USA and China. The three top export countries for a long time are Spain, Italy and France. In December 2005, a wine trade agreement was concluded with far-reaching consequences between the US and the EU; see in the relevant section under the keyword wine law, In addition, a new EU wine market regime came into force in August 2009 with major changes in wine quality grades and wine designations; see in detail under quality system, For vineyards and wine quantities of all countries, see the keyword Wine production volumes,