Already in antique According to written reports, Greece was a class of wine merchants in the early third century BC. For these existed the own job title "oinogeustes" (wine tasters), because for it visibly the ability of the tasting was a condition. The Greek port Monemvasia on the peninsula Peloponnes was especially in the Middle Ages an important Umschlagplatz for Sweet wines from the entire Mediterranean. Practiced for centuries England especially through strong import France a big influence on the wine taste. This has changed champagne. clairet. port wine and sherry established as wine styles. France has always been one of the main wine suppliers for many countries.
Especially in the region Bordeaux Many large trading companies have come into being, because from here the transport is mostly after England took place. Therefore has the Bordeaux wine trade a very special historical meaning. The Négociants Today, about 70% of the wines produced here are marketed in this region. At the time of their great colonial empires and conquests overseas, especially the three countries had England. Portugal. Spain and the city state Venice great importance in the wine trade. The former naval power Netherlands From the beginning of the 17th century, over a hundred years, it had a leading or controlling influence on the wine and spirits trade and became the world's largest trading power.
One differentiates in trade with unfilled wines in large containers (tanks or barrels), what generally as bulk wine (Barrel goods), as well as the trade in bottles. The sale of the barrel goods is made by winemakers and Winzergenossenschaften especially to the wine trade, as well as to wine and sparkling wine cellars for further processing. The most important forms of distribution for bottles are consumer market, food trade, wine shop, Farmgate sales, Mail order (increasingly via Internet) and gastronomy. The German company Hillebrand headquartered in Mainz-Hechtsheim (Rhineland-Palatinate) is the world's largest wine and beverage carrier. Special forms of the wine trade are Auctions (also increasingly via the Internet such as eBay) and subscriptions that is, pre-sales even before a wine is even produced (with special form "en Primeur"). Great changes arose from the 1980s through the increasing globalization the wine markets with huge multis (see largest wine companies in the world ).
The United States of North America is the largest export market for European wine. Absolute front runners in the import are Germany and traditionally the countries England, USA and China. The top three export countries for a long time are Spain, Italy and France. In Austria About 470,000 hectoliters were exported in 2012 (60% to Germany) and 776,000 hectoliters were imported. Around three out of four bottles of Austrian consumption come from Germany. In Germany In 2012, around 4 million hectoliters were exported and over 15 million hectoliters were imported.
In December 2005, a wine trade agreement was concluded with far-reaching consequences between the US and the EU; see in the relevant section under the keyword wine law, In addition, a new EU wine market regime came into force in August 2009 with major changes in wine quality grades and wine designations; see in detail under quality system, For vineyards and wine quantities of all countries, see the keyword Wine production volumes,