Whole of all procedures, techniques and measures in the vineyard and cellar to get out grapes one Wine to produce. Grape varieties have been cultivated and produced for at least 6,000 if not 8,000 years ago, as proven by plant remains found in Asia Minor, as well as numerous ancient ones wine vessels and artifacts from many areas. The cradle of wine culture Transcaucasia and the high cultures Mesopotamia, But the origin of European viticulture is above all in ancient times Greece and on the island Crete, Of course, this was done at that time with quite primitive methods (see in detail under Ancient wines and Antique grape varieties and the development of the "cultural heritage of wine" under drinking culture ). Interestingly, some ancient techniques are used today, as in the production of Orange Wine (Natural Wine) is the case.
As a rule, the process, also referred to as vinification, today uses sophisticated methods. It is in the art of winegrower the "right" procedures with the utmost care and hygiene to apply or, if necessary, to refrain from doing so. In brochures and on winegrower websites one reads in this regard very often the catchwords of "controlled idleness" or "as much as necessary and as little as possible" or of noninvasive Winemaking. This refers to a gentle, low-strain production by relying on the transport of grapes, must and wine as possible on the gravity, on certain techniques such as filtration or beautiful dispensed with or as few as possible to no substances to hardly replaceable sulfur used. So it applies, the approximately 300 approved Means in winemaking to use as correctly as possible.