Set of all processes, techniques and measures in the vineyard and cellar to get out grapes one Wine to produce. Grape varieties were cultivated and wine produced at least 6,000 if not 8,000 years ago, as evidenced by plant remains found in Asia Minor and numerous ancient ones wine vessels and artifacts from many areas. Considered the cradle of wine culture Transcaucasia and the high cultures Mesopotamia, The origins of European viticulture, however, lie primarily in ancient times Greece and on the island Crete, Of course, this was done at the time with rather primitive methods (see in detail under Ancient wines and Ancient grape varieties as well as the development of the "cultural asset wine" under drinking culture ). Interestingly, today some ancient techniques are used again, such as in the production of Orange Wine (Natural Wine) is the case.
As a rule, the process, also known as vinification, is carried out today using sophisticated methods. It is in the art of winegrower, the "right" procedures with the greatest care and hygiene apply or if necessary to waive it. In brochures and on winegrower websites, one often reads the catchwords of “controlled doing nothing” or “as much as necessary and as little as possible” or of noninvasive Winemaking. This means gentle, low-stress production by using gravity as much as possible when transporting grapes, must and wine, using certain techniques such as filtration or beautiful waived or as few as possible to no substances up to the hardly replaceable sulfur used. So it applies to the around 300 approved Means in winemaking use as correctly as possible.
The specific conditions in a vineyard in connection with the tradition and the art of the winemaker in the area in question are often associated with the French term terroir designated. Winemaking begins with the selection of vine and also that document which, due to their individual properties, should be taken into account as climatic Relationships and des soil type selects or plants. The essential prerequisite for good quality is Weinbauwürdigkeit, i.e. the suitability of an area / region for viticulture, for which there are a multitude of measurable criteria. This then continues with the Weingarten Care (Catchphrase "Quality already arises in the vineyard"), the different cellar techniques listed below for each type of wine as well as the bottling and is eventually eventually stored in the bottle ended before marketing.
Depending on the quality and type of wine, this can only take a few weeks or months for simple wines, but for special products such as sparkling wine respectively. champagne, Dessert wines like Madeira. port wine and sherry as well as in wooden barrels or Barrique aged wines can even take a few years before they can be marketed. For top wines with a long durability or maturity potential, the process continues with the bottle aging continued. This means that such wines only take a long time to mature after many years maturity to reach.
Under the keyword special wines there is a list of around 200 in glossary described wines with often imaginative names. For the most part, however, these have no traditional or colloquial meaning in terms of wine law, only local ones. For example bikini wine. Firewine. prison wine. spiced wine. counter wine. Pope wine. gun wine. final wine. holiday wine, and second wine, Also Barrique wine. Dessert wine. diabetics wine. kosher wine. altar wine. Orange Wine (not yet), sweet wine and vegetarian wine are not relevant to wine law, but only colloquial terms for certain types of wine.
Alphabetical list of all types of wine, sparkling wine and distillate regulated by law, with other beverages from wine / fruit / cereal products listed:
All wine law concerns are under wine law to find where a list of all 70 relevant keywords on the complex topic is given. These include, for example Designation rules. label (optional and mandatory information), EU regulations. quality system (Wine levels and names) and Quality wine-grape varieties, The country-specific wine laws are listed among the around 100 countries that are described with their own keyword (see a list below wine producing countries ).
More and more producers are turning to environmentally friendly, sustainable Production forms of the Organic (ecological) viticulture applied a use of the label Biowein strict regulations under wine law and also affect not only vineyard work but also cellar technology. Some are not without controversy or only in the New world usual / allowed, but within the European Union prohibited for member countries.
The vintage is the last work in the vineyard (all steps before see under Weingarten Care ). Then the long process of winemaking begins. Special methods for quality control applied. The individual techniques are grouped according to the usual processing order. They are arranged alphabetically within the groups for clarity, which of course does not correspond to the order during the processing process. Depending on the type of wine, there are many alternative methods in addition to the mandatory ones. Some are also carried out several times. B. Use of oenological enzymes, oxygen management and sulfur. The most common processing steps are in bold / red :
Fully fermented wine forms the basis for numerous other alcoholic beverages (sparkling wines and distillates). A comprehensive description for the manufacture of sparkling wine with all the necessary steps is under champagne contain:
In addition, there are also some not uncontroversial procedures, some of which are in the area of Esoteric are to be assigned. This includes considering the moon phases and planet stands as well as the sound system music waves in the vineyard and cellar as part of the biodynamic and Bioenergetic viticulture,
Particularly recommended books on the topic, which have also been used extensively as sources with the kind permission of the publishers, are:
HR Dipl.-Ing. Robert Steidl Dept. Cellaring / Dept. enology
Higher Federal College and Federal Office for Wine and Fruit Growing Klosterneuburg Lower Austria
2001: Friedrich Meidinger, Dieter Blankenhorn, Edgar Funk
2012: Dieter Blankenhorn, Edgar Funk (born Friedrich Meininger) - 4th updated edition