In the New world It has become common since the 1980s, the at Barrique resulting taste components of the oak to replace it with a cheaper and less expensive method. In the process, oak fragments of various sizes are attached or added to the steel tanks. These can be boards, rods (staves, inner staves), cubes, cuts (chips, oak chips) or shavings that are like the Barriques one toasting (Roasting) were subjected. Smaller fragments are packed in perforated bags or wire cages that are hung in the steel tanks for removal.
In part, the use already during the maceration, resulting in a correspondingly higher extraction the oakwood fabrics is achieved. In addition, oak-derived extracts are also available in the form of powders, tablets or essences. But this is already the limit between flavoring and wine adulteration achieved and is at least partially allowed within the EU at least. However, all of these oak wood fragments, when removed from the tank, can only mimic the quality of a true barrique build in oak barrels, but in no way replace it, since the absorption of small amounts of oxygen through the wood pores is eliminated.
On a larger scale, these new methods are mainly used overseas. But even here the top qualities are still being developed in barrique barrels. On the label is partly the form listed. Only "barrel fermented" undoubtedly means a "real" one barrel aging "While" oaked "or" wood matured ", this was probably in the form of chips. The use of pieces of oak wood was prohibited within the EU regardless of shape and size. There was, however, a derogation granted for 'large scale' purposes. However, as there were no bans in many non-EU countries, there was a distortion of competition. Because compared to barrique barrels cost only one tenth. The 2005 EU-US trade agreement had exacerbated the problem (see wine law ).
From 2006 oak pieces were allowed. This was initially only for young wine but was with the EU wine market from 2009 also on grapes (mash), grape and Wine extended for all quality levels. When using wood chips may but on Barrique indicative texts such as "matured (fermented) in oak / barrique" or the like can not be used. Even wines treated with pieces of oak and then stored in oak barrels are expressly prohibited. A declaration of the use of oak wood pieces on label but is not mandatory (but very well in the accompanying documents for a shipment). The oak pieces must come exclusively from Quercus species. They must be so large that at least 95% of the mass is retained in a 2mm sieve.
The pieces of oak wood are either used unaltered, ie natural or they are lightly, moderately or strongly heated, but must have no (even superficial) combustion and be neither charred nor brittle. They must not be subjected to any chemical, enzymatic or physical treatment other than heating and should not be mixed with any substances which increase the natural flavor or the extractable phenolic components. Likewise, the use of oenological tannins allowed.
See also a complete list of relevant terms on the subject below barrel and barrel, Complete listings of the numerous vinification measures and cellar techniques, as well as the wine-regulated wine, sparkling wine and distillate types are under the keyword winemaking contain. Comprehensive information on wine law is available under the keyword wine law,