In the New world it has already become common from the 1980s onwards Barrique resulting flavor components of the oak to be replaced by a less expensive and less expensive method. In the process, oak fragments of various sizes are attached to or added to the steel tanks. These can be boards, staves (staves, inner staves), cubes, cuts (chips, oak chips) or shavings like that Barriques one toasting (Roasting). Smaller fragments are packed in perforated bags or wire cages, which are hung in the steel tanks for removal.
In some cases, it is already used during the maceration, resulting in a correspondingly higher extraction the oak wood fabrics is achieved. In addition, there are also extracts obtained from oak in the form of powders, tablets or essences. But this already marks the boundary between flavoring and wine adulteration achieved and is only partially allowed, at least within the EU. However, all these oak wood fragments can only imitate the quality of a real oak barrel in oak barrels when they are removed in the tank, but in no way replace them, since the absorption of small amounts of oxygen through the wood pores is eliminated.
These new processes are being used to a greater extent, especially overseas. But here, too, the top qualities are still aged in barrique barrels. The shape is partly shown on the label. Only "barrel fermented" means without a doubt a "real one barrel aging ", On the other hand" oaked "or" wood matured ", that this was probably done in the form of chips. The use of pieces of oak was prohibited within the EU regardless of shape and size. However, there was an exception that was granted for "large-scale testing purposes". However, since there were no bans in many non-EU countries, there was a distortion of competition. Because compared to barrique barrels, the costs are only a tenth. The problem was exacerbated by the 2005 EU-US trade agreement (see below wine law ).
Pieces of oak were allowed from 2006. For the time being, this only applied to young wine, but was with the EU wine market from 2009 also on grapes (mash), grape and Wine extended for all quality levels. When using wood chips, however, on Barrique indicative texts such as "matured (fermented) in oak / barrique" or similar are not used. This is expressly forbidden even for wines that have been treated with pieces of oak wood and then stored in oak barrels. A declaration of the use of pieces of oak on label but is not mandatory (but it is certainly in the accompanying documents for a shipment). The pieces of oak must come exclusively from Quercus species. They must be large enough to retain at least 95% of the mass in a 2mm sieve.
The oak pieces are either used unchanged, i.e. left in their natural state, or they are lightly, moderately or strongly heated, but must not have any (no superficial) combustion and be neither charred nor brittle. Apart from heating, they must not be subjected to any chemical, enzymatic or physical treatment or mixed with any substances that increase the natural aroma or the extractable phenol components. The use of oenological tannins allowed.
See also a complete list of relevant terms on the topic under the keywords barrel and barrel, Complete lists of the numerous vinification measures or cellar techniques, as well as the wine, sparkling wine and distillate types regulated by wine law are under the keyword winemaking contain. There is extensive wine law information under the keyword wine law,