The red grape variety is indeed from Croatia, but under the name Zinfandel is mainly in California grown. The German pronunciation is "Zin-fan-del", in America the "a" is swallowed and the name pronounced as "Zinfn-dell". It is often referred to as "Zin" for short. According to Dr. Carole Meredith and John Bowers performed DNA analysis at the University of California (Davis) in close cooperation with Croatian and Italian vine specialists in the period from 1994 to 2011, the many decades of unclear identity was clarified. Three in Europe and one cultivated in the USA are identical:
The Croatian Tribidrag (also Crljenak Kaštelanski ), the Italian Primitivo , the Californian Zinfandel and the Montenegrin Kratošija are genetically (almost) equal. The variety is therefore also referred to as ZPC = Zinfandel / Primitivo / Crljenak Kaštelanski. Although Primitivo and Tribidrag / Zinfandel are not 100% identical according to DNA analysis, they are considered one vine, According to the ampelographical rule, a variety is named after the oldest name used, therefore the name "Tribalrag", already mentioned in the 15th century, was proposed in the grapevine Bible "Wine Grapes". The history of identity clarification is under Tribidrag described.
There are still many Americans who (for reasons of national pride) claim the origin of the vine in America. But both the vine species, namely Vitis vinifera, as well as the Croatian origin is now clearly proven. The vine came from Europe to America about 200 years ago. In the 1820s led the Rebschul owners George Gibbs in Long Island Wien or. Gumpoldskirchen ( Lower Austria ) different grape varieties, including was the Zinfandel. Perhaps the name is due to a wrong labeling or confusion with the likewise imported name-like variety Zierfandler emerged, but that is not certain. From 1835 it became a very popular wine press under the name Zinfendal, Zinfindal or Zinfendel in the northeastern United States table grape, Around the year 1850 she arrived in California. During the Gold Rush (1848-1854), the wine was the everyday beverage of the gold diggers.
Around the year 1885 Arpad Haraszthy claimed that his father Agoston Haraszthy (1812-1869) introduced the vine to California around the year 1860; This not to be verified or wrong hypothesis lasted until the 1970s. That she had come to America long before Haraszthy, was informed by the US historian and wine writer Charles L. Sullivan. Around the year 1890 it became the dominant variety during the first California wine boom. At the beginning of the 20th century, most of the land was used by the phylloxera destroyed. Some upgraded vines survived and were used for reforestation. In California's Amador County there are still more than 100 years old specimens. During the prohibition (1920-1933), the vine was the most common basis for banned wine making. It continued to be popular and was the most common grape variety in the United States in the 1990s.
The two (three) varieties have been in the last 200 years Maturity date, Susceptibility to disease and taste developed slightly differently. The medium-maturing Zinfandel (slightly later than Primitivo) is sensitive to moisture and prone to Botrytis, On a grape often fully ripe and unripe berries can appear mixed, causing the vintage makes difficult. It provides alcoholic red wines with aging potential. This characterizes a characteristic spicy taste (even more so than Primitivo) with a variety of aromas cinnamon, Mint, chocolate. cloves. pepper, Black cherries, blackberries and raspberries. The variety is said to have the character of a soil ( terroir ) can express very well. In the US, Zinfandel is used for rosé wines ( White zinfandel ), light to strong alcohol red wines mostly as varietal varietals and fortified dessert wines in the Port wine style used. The names Zinfandel and Primitivo are allowed.
In the United States In 2010, a total of 19,857 hectares were reported. By far the largest part of it is located at around 19,000 in California, especially Central Valley with 8,000 hectares, North Coast ( Mendocino County. Sonoma County ) and Sierra Foothills, In San Joaquin County, in 1999, a white variety ( mutation ) found. Since 1991 there is the union ZAP (Zinfandel Advocates & Producers). Smaller areas are also available in the states Arizona. Colorado. Illinois. Indiana. Massachusetts. New Mexico. new York. North Carolina. Ohio. Oregon. Tennessee. Texas and Washington, All cultivation countries and quantities see under Tribidrag,